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country. They originally emigrated from Germany to the plains of southern Russia, but came over to Manitoba to escape the conscription. They number upwards of 15,000. About 4000 French Canadians, who had emigrated from Quebec to the United States, have also made the province their home, as well as Icelanders now numbering 20,000. During the decade ending 1907 large reserves were settled with Ruthenians often known as Galicians, Poles and other peoples from central and northern Europe. Some 30,000 of these are found in the province. The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people from the. other provinces of-the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.

Religion.-Classified according to religion, the various denominations were, in 1901, as follows: Presbyterians, 65,310; Episcopalians, 44,874; Methodists, 49,909; Roman Catholics, 35,622; Baptists, 9098; Lutherans, 16,473; Mennonites, IS,222; Greek Catholics, 7898; other denominations, 9903; not specified, 638. 1 . 1

Government.-The province is under a lieutenant-governor, appointed for a term of five years, with an executive council of six members, responsible to the local legislature, which consists of forty-two members. It has four members in the Canadian Senate and ten in the House of Commons. Education.-»The dual system of education, established in 1871, was abolished in 1890, and the administrative machinery consolidated under a minister of the Crown and an advisory board. This act was amended in 1897 to meet the wishes of the Roman Catholic minority, but separate schools were not reestablished; nor was the council divided into denominational committees. There are collegiate institutes for more advanced education at Winnipeg, Brandon and Portage la Prairie, with a total of 1094 pupils enrolled. There is also a normal school at Winnipeg for the training of teachers. Higher education is represented by the provincial university, which teaches science and mathematics, holds examinations, distributes scholarships, and grants degrees in all subjects. It has afhliated to it colleges of the Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian and Methodist denominations, with medical and pharmaceutical colleges. The arts colleges of the churches carry on the several courses required by the university, and send their students to the examinations of the university. A well-equipped agricultural college near Winnipeg is provided for sons and daughters of farmers.

Agriculture is the prevailing industry of Manitoba. Dairyfarming is rapidly increasing in importance, and creameries for the manufacture of butter and cheese are established in almost all parts of the province. Large numbers of horses, cattle, swine and poultry are reared. The growth of cereals is the largest department of agriculture followed. . The following statistics are interesting:- 1883. 1890.

Wheat .

Oats .

Barley .

Flax .


Peas . .

Potatoes . .

Other roots .

Bushels. Bushels.

5,686,355 14,665,769

9,473,965 9,513,443

1,393,430 2,069,415

11 rv

n n


u uv


No statrsti cs collected. 366,000



1894. 1901.

84I, Q42

Bushels. Bushels.

17,172,883 50,502,085

1 1,907,854 27,796,588









The enormous development of the wheat-growing industry is shown by these and the following statistics:- Wheat inspected in Winnipeg.

1902 .... SI,833,000 bushels

1903 ~ ~ 40,396,650, ,

1904 - - 39,734,900, ,

1905 — 55,849,840, ,

1906 .... 66,636,390, ,

These figures do not include the wheat ground into flour and sent by way of British Columbia to Asia and Australia, nor the wheat retained by the farmers for seed. The Dominion government maintains an experimental farm of 670 acres at Brandon. The fisheries are all fresh-water, principally white-fish, pickerel and pike. Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States. Communications.-The region of the Red River and Assiniboine valleys was opened up by the fur traders, who came by the waterways from Lake Superior, and afterwards by the water communication with Hudson Bay. 'While these early traders used the canoe and the York b0at,1 yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1,868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River. The completion of the St Andrew's Rapids canal on Red River, and the Grand Rapids canal on the Saskatchewan river will again gi/ve an impetus to inland navigation on the tributaries of Lake innipeg. Lake Manitoba also affords opportunity for inland shipping.

The broad expanse of prairie-land in the western provinces of Canada is well suited for the cheap and expeditious building of railways. The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley. But the desire for Canadian unity led the Dominion to assist a transcontinental line connecting Manitoba with eastern Canada. The building of the Canadian Pacific railway through almost continuous rocks for 800 miles was one of the greatest engineering feats of modern times. Immediately on the formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country. Winnipeg is thus connected with Montreal on the east, and Vancouver on the west, and is the central point of the Canadian Pacific system, having railway yards and equipment equalled by few places in America. In opposition to the Canadian Pacific railway a southern line was built from Winnipeg to the American boundary. This fell into the hands of the Northern Pacific railway, but was purchased by the promoters of the Canadian Northern railway. This railway has six radiating lines leaving the city of Vi/innipeg, and its main line connects Port Arthur on Lake Superior with Edmonton in the west. The Canadian Northern railway has a remarkable network of railways connecting /Vinnipeg with every corner of Manitoba. The Great Northern railway has also three branch lines in Manitoba and one of these has Winnipeg as its terminus. The grand Trunk Pacific railway, the great transcontinental line promoted by the Laurier government, passes through Manitoba north of the Canadian Pacific, coming from the east deflects southward to pass through Winnipeg, and then strikes northward in a direct line of easy gradients to find its way through the Rocky Mountains to its terminus of Prince Rupert on the north coast of British Columbia. History.-The first white settlement in Manitoba was made by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la Verendrye (d. 1749), who, gradually pushing westward from Lake Superior, reached Lake Winnipeg in 1733, and in the following year built a fort not far from the present Fort Alexander. In October 1738 he built another at Fort Rouge, at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, where is now the city of Winnipeg. After the British conquest of 1763 the west became the scene of a rapidly increasing fur trade, and for many years there was keen rivalry between the Hudson's Bay Company, with its headquarters in England, and the North-West Company of Montreal. French and Scottish farmers and fur-traders gradually settled along the Red River, and by their frequent marriages with the Indians produced a race of metis or half-breeds. From 1811 to 1818 Lord Selkirk's attempted colonization greatly increased the population; from the time of his failure till 1869 the settlers lived quietly under the mild rule of the Hudson's Bay Company. In that year the newly formed Dominion of Canada bought from the company its territorial and political rights. A too hasty occupation by Canadian officials and settlers led to the rebellion of the Metis under Louis Riel, a native leader. The rebellion was quieted and Sir Garnet Wolseley (now Lord Wolseley) was sent from Canada by the lake route, with several regiments of 'troops-regulars and volunteers. The Manitoba Act constituting the province was passed by the Canadian parliament in 1870. (See RED RIVER SETTLEMENT; and R1EL, LOUIS.)

The admixture of races and religions, and its position as the key to the great West, have ever since made Manitoba the 1 A round-bottomed, strongly built boat, 30 to 36 ft. long, propelled by 8 men. It was devised by the Hudson's Bay Company for carrying freight, as a substitute for the less serviceable canoe, and was named after their York factory. the centre to which the traders brought down the furs for shipment to England and from which they took back merchandise and supplies to the interior of Rupert's Land.