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storm centre of Canadian politics. In the charter granted by the Canadian parliament to the Canadian Pacific railway a clause giving it for twenty years control over the railway construction of the province led to a fierce agitation, till the clause was repealed in 1888. Till 1884 an equally fierce agitation was carried on against Ontario with regard to the eastern boundary of Manitoba. (See ONTARIO.) In both these disputes the provincial leader was the Hon. John Norquay, in whose veins ran a large admixture of Indian blood. In 1890 changes in the school system unfavourable to the Roman Catholic Church led to a constitutional struggle, to which was due the defeat of the Federal ministry in 1896. Since 1896 its rapid material progress has produced numerous economic problems and disputes, many of which are still unsolved. (G. BR.; W. L. G.)

MANITOU or MANITO (Algonquian Indian, “ mystery, ” “ supernatural ”), among certain American Indian tribes, a spirit or genius of good or evil. The manitou is almost always an animal, each individual having one assigned him, generally by dream-inspiration, at the greatest religious act of his lifehis first fast. This animal then becomes his fetish; its skin is carried as a charm, and representations of it are tattooed and painted on the body or engraved on the weapons.

MANITOWOC (Indian, “ Spirit-land”), a city and the county seat of Manitowoc county, Wisconsin, on the W. shore of Lake Michigan, 75 m. N. of Milwaukee. Pop. (1890), 7710; (1900), 11,786, of whom 2998 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 13,027. It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, and the Wisconsin Central railways; by ferry across the lake to Frankfort, Mich., and Ludington, Mich.; by the Ann Arbor and the Pere Marquette railways; and by the Goodrich line of lake steamers. The city is finely situated on high ground above the lake at the mouth of the Manitowoc river. At Manitowoc are the county insane asylum and a Polish orphan asylum. The city has a training school for county teachers, a business college, two hospitals and a Carnegie library. There are ship-yards for the construction of both steel and wooden vessels, and several grain elevators. The value of the factory products increased from $1,935,442 in 1900 to $4,427,816 in 1905, or 128-8 per cent.-a greater increase than that of any other city in the state during this period. There is a good harbour, and the city has a considerable lake commerce in grain, flour, and dairy products. Jacques Vieau established here a post for the North-west Company of fur traders in 1795. The first permanent settlement was made about 1836, and Manitowoc was chartered as a city in 1870. In Manitowoc county, 18 m. south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people bv combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to “ the colony founded by me.” The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the “ Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz, ” and as such sued successfully for the bequest. Financially the colony was successful, but as there were some desertions and no new recruits after Father Oswald's death, there were few members by 1909. There are no longer any traces of communism, and the colony's property is actually held by an organization of the local Roman Catholic church.

MANIZALES, a city of Colombia and capital of the department of Céldas (up to 1905 the northern part of Antioquia, 75 m. S. of Medellin, on the old trade route across the Cordillera between Honda, on the Magdalena, and the Cauca Valley. Pop. (1906, estimate), 20,000. The city is situated on a plateau of the western slope of the Cordillera, 6988 ft., above the sea.. It is surrounded by rich mineral and agricultural districts.

MANKATO, a city and the county-seat of Blue Earth county, Minnesota, U.S.A., at the southern bend of the Minnesota river, where it is joined by the Blue Earth about 86 m. S.W. of Minneapolis. Pop. (1890), 8838; (1900), 10,599, of whom 2578 were foreign-born; (1910 census), IO,365. Mankato 'is served by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, the Chicago & North-Western (both “ North -Western Lines ”), the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Chicago Great-Western railways. The city has two fine parks, a Carnegie library, a Federal building, the Immanuel and St Joseph hospitals, two commercial colleges, and a state normal school (1868). The numerous lakes in the neighbourhood, particularly Lake Madison and Lake Washington, are widely known as summer resorts. Four miles west of the city is Minneopa state park (area, 60 acres), in which are Minneopa Falls (60 ft.) and a fine gorge; the park was established by the state in 1905-1906. Mankato has an extensive trade in dairy and agricultural products (especially grain), stone (a pinkish buff limestone is quarried in the vicinity), and forest products. The value of its factory products increased from $1,887,315 in 1900 to $3,422,117 in 1905, or 81-3%.

Mankato was settled about 1853, and was first chartered as a city in 1868. On or near the site of the city stood a village of the Mankato (“ blue earth ”) band of the Mdewakanton Sioux, who derived their name from one of their chiefs, “ Old Mankato.” In this region occurred the Sioux uprising of 1862, and from this point operations were carried on which eventually resulted in the subjugation of the Indians and the hanging, at Mankato, in December 1862, of 38 leaders of the revolt. In the uprising the Mankato band was led by another chief named Mankato, who took part in the attack on Ft Ridgeley, Minn., in August, in the engagement on the 3rd of September at Birch Coolie, Minn., and in that on the 23rd of September at Wood Lake, where he was killed.

MANLEY, MARY DE LA RIVIERE (e. 1663-1724), English writer, daughter of Sir Roger Manley, governor of the Channel Islands, was born on the 7th of April 1663 in Jersey. She wrote her own biography under the title of The Adventures of Rizvella, or the History of the Author of the Atalantis by “Sir Charles Lovemore” (1714). According to her own account she was left an orphan at the age of sixteen, and beguiled into a mock marriage with a kinsman who deserted her basely three years afterwards. She was patronized for a short time by the duchess of Cleveland, and wrote an unsuccessful comedy, The Lost Lover (1696); in freedom of speech she equalled the most licentious writers of comedy in that generation. Her tragedy, The Royal Mischief (1696) was more successful. From 1696 Mrs Manley was a favourite member of witty and fashionable society. In 1705 appeared The Secret History of Queen Zarah and the Zarazians, a satire on Sarah, duchess of Marlborough, in the guise of romance. This was probably by Mrs Manley, who, four years later, achieved her principal triumph as a writer by her Secret Memoirs .... of Several Persons of Quality (1709), a scandalous chronicle “from the New Atalantis, an island in the Mediterranean.” She was arrested in the autumn of 1709 as the author of a libellous publication, but was discharged by the court of queen's bench on the 13th of February 1710. Mrs Manley sought in this scandalous narrative to expose the private vices of the ministers whom Swift, Bolingbroke and Harley combined to drive from office. During the keen political campaign in 1711 she wrote several pamphlets, and many numbers of the Examiner, criticizing persons and policy with equal vivacity. Later were published her tragedy Lucius (1717); The Power of Love, in Seven Novels (1720), and A Stage Coach Journey to Exeter (1725).

MANLIUS, the name of a Roman gens, chiefly patrician, but containing plebeian families also.

1. Marcus Manlius Capitolinus, a patrician, consul 392 B.C. According to tradition, when in 390 B.C. the besieging Gauls were attempting to scale the Capitol, he was roused by the cackling of the sacred geese, rushed to the spot and threw down the foremost assailants (Livy v. 47; Plutarch, Camillns, 27).