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587
MANN—MANNA

Several years after, seeing a centurion led to prison for debt, he freed him with his own money, and even sold his estate to relieve other poor debtors, while he accused the senate of embezzling public money. He was charged with aspiring to kingly power, and condemned by the comitia, but not until the assembly had adjourned to a place without the walls, where they could no longer see the Capitol which he had saved. His house on the Capitol (the origin of his surname) was razed, and the Manlii resolved that henceforth no patrician Manlius should bear the name of Marcus, According to Mommsen, the story of the saving of the Capitol was a later invention to explain his surname, and his attempt to relieve the debtors a fiction of the times of Cinna.

Livy vi. 14-20; Plutarch, Camillus, 36; Cicero, De domo, 38.

2. Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus, twice dictator (353, 349 B.C.) and three times consul (347, 344, 340). When his father, L. Manlius Imperiosus (dictator 363), was brought to trial by the tribune M. Pomponius for abusing his office of dictator, he forced Pomponius to drop the accusation by threatening his life (Livy vii. 3-5). In 360, during a war with the Gauls, he slew one of the enemy, a man of gigantic stature, in single combat, and took from him a torques (neck-ornament), whence his surname. When the Latins demanded an equal share in the government of the confederacy, Manlius vowed to kill with his own hand the first Latin he saw in the senate house. The Latins and Campanians revolted, and Manlius, consul for the third time, marched into Campania and gained two great victories, near Vesuvius, where P. Decius Mus (q.v.), his colleague, “ devoted ” himself in order to gain the day, and at Trifanum. In this campaign Manlius executed his own son, who had killed an enemy in single combat, and thus disobeyed the express command of the consuls.

Livy vii. 4, 10, 27, viii. 3; Cicero, De off. iii. 31.

3. Titus Manlius Torquatus, consul 235 B.c. and 224, censor 231, dictator 208. In his first consulship he subjugated Sardinia, recently acquired from the Carthaginians, when the temple of Ianus was shut for the second time in Roman history (Livy i. 19). In 216 he opposed the ransoming of the Romans taken prisoners at Cannae; and in 21 5 he was sent to Sardinia and defeated a Carthaginian attempt to regain possession of the island.

Livy xxiii. 34; Polybius ii. 31.

4. Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, praetor 195, consul 189. He was sent to Asia to conclude peace with Antiochus III., king of Syria. He marched into Pamphylia, defeated the Celts of Galatia on Mt Olympus and drove them back across the Halys. In the winter, assisted by ten delegates sent from Rome, he settled the terms of peace with Antiochus, and in 187 received the honour of a triumph.

Polybius xxii. 16-25; Livy xxxviii. 12-28, 37-50; xxxix. 6.


MANN, HORACE (1796-1859), American educationist, was born in Franklin, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May 1796. His childhood and youth were passed in poverty, and his health was early impaired by hard manual labour. His only means for gratifying his eager desire for books was the small library founded in his native town by Benjamin Franklin and consisting principally of histories and treatises on theology. At; the age of twenty he was fitted, in six months, for college, and in 1819, graduated with highest honours, from the Brown University at Providence, Rhode Island, having devoted himself so unremittingly to his studies as to weaken further his naturally feeble constitution. He then studied law for a short time at Wrentham, Massachusetts; was tutor in Latin and Greek (1820-1822) and librarian (1821-1823) at Brown University; studied during 1821-1823 in the famous law school conducted by ]udge James Gould at Litchfield, Connecticut; and in 1823 was admitted to the Norfolk (Mass.) bar. For fourteen years, first at Dedham, Massachusetts, and after 1833 at Boston, he devoted himself, with great success, to his profession. Meanwhile he served, with conspicuous ailbity, in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833 and in the Massachusetts Senate from 1833 to 1837, for the last two years as president. It was not until he became secretary (1837) of the newly created board of education of Massachusetts, that be began the work which was soon to place him in the foremost rank of American educationists. He held this position till 1848, and worked with a remarkable intensity-holding teachers' conventions, delivering numerous lectures and addresses, carrying on an extensive correspondence, introducing numerous reforms, planning and inaugurating the Massachusetts normal school system, founding and editing The Common School Journal (1838), and preparing a series of Annual Reports, which had a wide circulation and are still considered as being “ among the best expositions, if, indeed, they are not the very best ones, of the practical benefits of a common school education both to the individual and to the state” (Hinsdale). The practical result of his work, was the virtual revolutionizing of the common school system of Massachusetts, and indirectly of the common school systems of other states. In carrying out his work he met with bitter opposition, being attacked particularly by certain school-masters of Boston who strongly disapproved of his pedagogical theories and innovations, and by various religious sectaries, who contended against the exclusion of all sectarian instruction from the schools. He answered these attacks in kind, sometimes perhaps with unnecessary vehemence and rancour, but he never faltered in his work, and, an optimist by nature, a disciple of his friend George Combe (q.'1/.), and a believer in the indefinite improbability of mankind, he was sustained throughout by his conviction that nothing could so much benefit the race, morally, intellectually and materially, as education. Resigning the secretaryship in 1848, he was elected to the national House of Representatives as an anti-slavery Whig to succeed John Quincy Adams, and was re-elected in 1849, and, as an independent candidate, in 1850, serving until March 1853. In 1852 he was the candidate of the Free-soilers for the governorship of Massachusetts, but was defeated. In Congress he was one of the ab1est opponents of slavery, contending particularly against the Compromise Measures of 18 50, but he was never technically an Abolitionist and he disapproved of the Radicalism of Garrison and his followers. From 1853 until his death, on the second of August 1859, he was president of the newly established Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology. The college received insuliicient financial support and suffered from the attacks of religious sectaries-he himself was charged with insincerity because, previously a Unitarian, he joined the Christian Connexion, by which the college was founded-but he earned the love of his students, and by his many addresses exerted a beneficial influence upon education in the Middle West. A collected edition of Mann's writings, together with a memoir (I vol.) by his second wife, Mary Peabody Mann, a sister of Miss E. P. Peabody, was published (in 5 vols. at Boston in 1867-1891) as the Life and Works of Horace M ann. Of subse uent biographies the best is probably Burke A. Hinsdale's Horace Ilflann and the Common School Revival cn the United States (New York, 1898), in “ The Great Educators ” series. Among other biographies O. H. Lang's Horace Mann, his Life and Work (New York, 1893), Albert E. Winship's Horace Mann, the Educator (Boston, 1896), and George A. Hubbell's Life of Horace M ann, Educator, Patriot and Reformer (Philadelphia, 1910), may be mentioned. In vol. I. of the Report for 1895-1896 of the United States commissioner of education there is a detailed “ Bibliography of Horace Mann, “ containing more than 700 titles.


MANNA, a concrete saccharine exudation obtained by making incisions on the trunk of the flowering or manna ash tree, Fraxlnns Ornus. The manna ash is a small tree found in Italy, and extending to Switzerland, South Tirol, Hungary, Greece, Turkey and Asia Minor. It also grows in the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia. It blossoms early in summer, producing numerous clusters of whitish flowers. At the present day the manna of commerce is collected exclusively in Sicily from cultivated trees, chiefly in the districts around Capaci, Carini, Cinisi and F avarota., small towns 20 to 25 m. W. of Palermo, and in the townships of Geraci, Castelbuono, and other places in the district of Cefalii, 5o to ']Oi1'Il. E. of Palermo. In the frassinetti or plantations the