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on his map of Sweden and Norway (1:600,000; 1835), coloured the lowlands up to 300 ft. in green, succeeded by red, yellow and white for the higher ground; while A. Papen, on his hypsographical map of Central Europe (1857) introduced a perplexing range of colours. At the present time compilers of strata maps generally limit themselves to two or three colours, in various shades, with green for the lowlands, brown for the hills and blue for the sea. On the international map of the world, planned by Professor A. Penck on a scale of 1:1,000,000, which has been undertaken by the leading governments of the world, the ground is shown by contours at intervals of 100 metres (to be increased to 200 and 500 metres in mountainous districts); the strata are in graded tints, viz. blue for the sea, green for lowlands up to 300 metres, yellow between 300 and 500 metres, brown up to 2000 metres, and reddish tints beyond that height.

The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L. Chr. Müller (Plan und Kartenzeichnen, 1788) and J. G. Lehmann, who directed a survey of Saxony, 1780-1806, and published his Theorie der Bergzeichnung in 1799. By this method the slopes are indicated by strokes or hachures crossing the contour lines at right angles, in the direction of flowing water, and varying in thickness according to the degree of declivity they represent (cf. for example, the map of Switzerland in this work). The light is supposed to descend vertically upon the country represented, and in a true scale of shade the intensity increases with the inclination from 0° to 90°; but as such a scale does not sufficiently differentiate the lesser inclinations which are the most important, the author adopted a conventional scale, representing a slope of 45° or more, supposed to be inaccessible, as absolutely black, the level surfaces, which reflect all the light which falls upon them, as perfectly white, and the intervening slopes by a proportion between black and white, as in fig. 2.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.

The main principles of this system have been maintained, but its details have been modified frequently to suit special cases. Thus the French survey commission of 1828 fixed the proportion of black to white at one and a half times the angle of slope; while in Austria, where steep mountains constitute an important feature, solid black has been reserved for a slope of 80°, the proportion of black to white varying from 80:0 (for 50°) to 8:72 (for 5°). On the map of Germany (1:100,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 10°. Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed. This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called “form lines.” This method can be recommended in the case of plotting the results of an explorer’s route, or in the case of countries of which we have no regular survey (cf. the map of Afghanistan in this work).

Instead of supposing the light to fall vertically upon the surface it is often supposed to fall obliquely, generally at an angle of 45° from the upper left-hand corner. It is claimed for this method that it affords a means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other methods of shading fail. The Dufour map of Switzerland (1:100,000) is one of the finest examples of this style of hill-shading. For use in the field, however, and for scientific work, a contoured map like Siegfried’s atlas of Switzerland, or, in the case of hilly country, a map shaded on the assumption of a vertical light, will prove more useful than one of these, notwithstanding that truth to nature and artistic beauty are claimed on their behalf.

Instead of shading by lines, a like effect may be produced by mezzotint shading (cf. the map of Italy, or other maps, in this work, on a similar method), and if this be combined with contour lines very satisfactory results can be achieved. If this tint be printed in grey or brown, isohypses, in black or red, show distinctly above it. The same combination is possible if hills engraved in the ordinary manner are printed in colours, as is done in an edition of the 1-inch ordnance map, with contours in red and hills hachured in brown.

Efforts have been made of late years to improve the available methods of representing ground, especially in Switzerland, but the so-called stereoscopic or relief maps produced by F. Becker, X. Imfeld, Kümmerly, F. Leuzinger and other able cartographers, however admirable as works of art, do not, from the point of utility, supersede the combination of horizontal contours with shaded slopes, such as have been long in use. There seems to be even less chance for the combination of coloured strata and hachures proposed by K. Peucker, whose theoretical disquisitions on aerial perspective are of interest, but have not hitherto led to satisfactory practical results.[1]

The above remarks apply more particularly to topographic maps. In the case of general maps on a smaller scale, the orographic features must be generalized by a skilful draughtsman and artist. One of the best modern examples of this kind is Vogel’s map of Germany, on a scale of 1:500,000.

Selection of Names and Orthography.—The nomenclature or “lettering” of maps is a subject deserving special attention. Not only should the names be carefully selected with special reference to the objects which the map is intended to serve, and to prevent overcrowding by the introduction of names which can serve no useful object, but they should also be arranged in such a manner as to be read easily by a person consulting the map. It is an accepted rule now that the spelling of names in countries using the Roman alphabet should be retained, with such exceptions as have been familiarized by long usage. In such cases, however, the correct native form should be added within brackets, as Florence (Firenze), Leghorn (Livorno), Cologne (Cöln) and so on. At the same time these corrupted forms should be eliminated as far as possible. Names in languages not using the Roman alphabet, or having no written alphabet should be spelt phonetically, as pronounced on the spot. An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach. The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced. The diphthong ai is

  1. K. Peucker, Schattenplastik und Farbenplastik (Vienna, 1898); Geograph. Zeitschrift (1902 and 1908).