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This projection possesses an important property. From the elementary geometry of sphere and cylinder it is clear that each N., VN N

P r r



Flo. 2.

strip of the projection is equal in area to the zone on the model which it represents, and that each portion of a strip is equal in area to the corresponding portion of a zone. Thus, each small four-sided hgure (on the model) bounded by meridians and parallels is represented on the projection by a rectangle EJ which is of exactly the same area, and this applies to any such figure however small. It therefore follows that any figure, of any shape on the model, is correctly represented as regards area by its corresponding ngure on the projection. Projections having this property are said to be equal-area projections or equivalent projections; the name of the projection just described is “ the cylindrical equal-area projection.” This projection will serve to exemplify the remark made in the first paragraph that it is possible to select certain qualities of the model which shall be represented truthfully, but only at the expense of other qualities. For instance, it is clear that in this case all meridian lengths are too small and all lengths along the parallels, except the equator, are too large. Thus although the areas are preserved the shapes are, especially away from the equator, much distorted. “

The property of preserving areas is, however, a valuable one when the purpose of the map is to exhibit areas. If, for example, it is desired to give an idea of the area and distribution of the various states comprising the British Empire, this is a fairly good projection. Mercator's, which is commonly used in atlases, preserves local shape at the expense of area, and is valueless for the purpose of showing areas.

Many other projections can be and have been devised, which depend for their construction on a purely geometrical relationship between the imaginary model and the plane. Thus projections may be drawn which are derived from cones which touch or cut the sphere, the parallels being formed by the intersection with the cones of planes parallel to the equator, or by lines drawn radially from the centre. It is convenient to describe all projections which are derived from the model by a simple and direct geometrical construction as “ geometrical projections.” All other projections may be known as “ non-geometrical projections.” Geometrical projections, which include perspective projections, are generally speaking of small practical value. They have loomed much more largely on the map-maker's horizon than their importance warrants. It is not going too far to say that the expression “ map projection ” conveys to most well-informed persons the notion of a geometrical projection; and yet by far the greater number of useful projections are non geometrical. The notion referred to is no doubt due to the very term “ projection, ” which unfortunately appears to indicate an arrangement of the terrestrial parallels and meridians which can be arrived at by direct geometrical construction. Especially has harm been caused by this idea when dealing with the group of conical projections. The most useful conical projections have nothing to do with the secant cones, but are simply projections in which the meridians are straight lines which converge to a point which is the centre of the circular parallels. The number of really useful geometrical projections may be said to be four: the equal-area cylindrical just described, and the following perspective projections-the central, the stereographic and Clarke's external.

Perspective Projections.

In perspective drawings of the sphere, the plane on which the representation is actually made may generally be any plane perpendicular to the line joining the centre of the sphere and the point of vision. If V be the point of vision, P any point on the spherical surface, then p, the point in which the straight line VP intersects the plane of the representation, is the projection of P.

Orthogrophic Projection.-In this projection the point of vision is at an infinite distance and the rays consequently parallel; in this case the plane of the drawing may through the centre of the sphere. Let the circle (fig. 3) represent the plane of the equator on which we propose to make an orthographic representation of meridians and parallels. The centre of this circle is clearly the projection of the pole, and the parallels are projected into circles having the pole for a common centre. The diameters oa', bb' being at right angles, let the semicircle bob' be divided into the required number of equal parts; the diameters drawn through these points are the projections of meridians. The distances of c, of d and of e from the diameter aa' are the radii of the successive circles representing the parallels. It is clear that, when the points of division are very close, the parallels will be very much crowded towards the outside of the map; so much so, that this projection is not much used. For an orthographic projection of the globe on a meridian plane let gnrs (fig. 4) be the meridian, ns the axis of rotation, then qr is the projection of the equator. The parallels will be represented by straight lines passing through the points of equal division; these lines are, like the equator, perpendicular to ns. The meridians will in this case be ellipses described on ns as a common major axis, the distances of c, of d and of e from ns being the minor semiaxes. be supposed to pass

/ 'Y .


Fig. 3.

A i .L Pm

Slit 4 ~

IZI i f

PEF } ¢

muff ll a

Fld. 4. FIG. 5.

Let us next construct an orthographic projection of the sphere on the horizon of any place.

Set off the angle aop (fig. 5) from the radius oa, equal to the latitude. Drop the perpendicular pP on oa, then P is the projection of the ole. On ao produced take ob= pP, then ob is the minor semiaxis of) the ellipse representing the equator, its major axis being gr at right angles to ao. The points in which the meridians meet this elliptic equator are determined by lines drawn parallel to aob through the points of equal subdivision cdifgh. Take two points, as d and g, which are 90° apart, and let i be their projections on the equator; then is the pole of the meridian which passes through k. This meridian is of course an ellipse, and is described with reference to i exactly as the equator was described with reference to P. Produce io to l, and make lo equal to half

through i; then lo is the

semi-axis of the elliptic

meridian, and the major

axis is the diameter perpendicular

to iol.

For the parallels: let

it be required to describe

the parallel whose co latitude

is u; take pmpn=u,

and let rn'n' be

the projections of rn and

n on oPa; then rn'n' is the

minor axis of the ellipse

representing the parallel.

Its centre is of course midway

between m' and n', and

the greater axis is equal to

mn. Thus the construction

is obvious. When pm is

less than pa the whole of

the shortest chord that can be drawn


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