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Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Weak form.

Prakrit k¢mn6, kanmi khalpd, kha;;d6 culli, cullié ghararh, ghariuh an ear. a bed. a fireplace. a house.

Marathi . . kdn kzin khd; khzifd all czili ghar gharé Strong form.

Prakrit . . gh6da6, ghridayd ghédfizi, ghéglizizi — ~ *gh6dayam, *ghédaydzm a horse. a mare. 11 h0r§ €-Marathi

ghédd ghzidé ghédi ghlidyd - - ghédé ghcidi Several of the old synthetic cases have survived in Marathi The accusative is usually the same as the nominative, but when Y

especially in the antique form of the language preserved in poetry. Most of them have fallen into disuse in the modern prose language. We may note the following, some of which have preserved the l/Iaharastri forms, while others are directly derived from the Apabhramsa stage of the language. We content ourselves with giving some of the synthetic cases of one noun, a weak neuter a-base, ghar, definiteness is required the dative is employed instead. The termination 115, with its plural ni, is, as explained in the article GUJARATI, reall the oblique form, by origin a locative, of the mi or mi, employed in Gujarati to form the genitive. The suffix nd of the dative plural is derived from the same word. Here it is probably a corruption of the Apabhraniéa mia or naho. The post position ld a house. . is probably a corruption of the Sanskrit ldbhé, Apabhrarhsa lahi, for the benefit (of): As regards the ablative, we have Maharastri Prakrit. Apabhrarhsa. Marathi. m Old Mfirgthl p(?etry 3 form Corresponclmg. to gharahu-mya, which explains the derivation. S ~ Glfzardhu is a by-iorm of the Pliakritasynthitic ablative mg- g ardu, to Wiic niyd, anot er o lique orm of mi, Nomlnatlve- ~ ghflfam ghafu S'h0' is added to define the meaning. The locative DHUVE ~ ~ - 5710761550 lgeflflilve) ghf”¢lhQ lgefllflve) £11079-Y (dative) termination"t is a contraction of the Pr. ant6, Skr. Locative . gharé gharahz (~hi) ghari, ghard anfan within P1G€1'1@I'-11 Oblique 8110705541 (genifive) £hfl"1h0 lgefllfivel Ehaffisy ghaffi The genitive ghardtsd is really an adjective mean-Ur. 3, z ing “ belonging to the house, " and agrees in N0m1Hf1UV@ ~ Zhflffivfi gha1'a1 gharg gender, number and case with the noun which is Locative gharésu gharahr (-hi) gharg p0SS@S5¢d Thug; General oblique ghardfza (genitive) gharahd (gemtive) ghard mfilyfizgfi ghédfi, the gardener's horse. mdlyécé As already stated, in Prakrit the genitive is employed instead of the dative, and thus forms the basis of the Marathi dative singular. The genitive plural is not used as a dative plural in Marathi, but it is the basis of the plural general oblique case. The Marathi singular general oblique case is really the same as the Marathi dative singular, but in the standard form of speech when so used the finals is dropped, gharris, as a general oblique case, being only found in dialects. This general oblique case is the result of the confusion of the various oblique cases originally distinguished in Sanskrit and in literary Prakrit. In Apabhraméa the genitive began to usurp the function of all the other cases. It is obvious that if it were regularly employed in so indeterminate a sense, it would give rise to great confusion. Hence when it was intended to show clearly what particular case was meant, it became usual to add, to this indeterminate genitive, defining particles corresponding to the English “ of, ” “ to, ” “ from, " “ by, " &c., which, as in all Indo-Aryan languages they follow the main word, are called “ post positions.” Before dealing with these, it will be convenient to give the modern Marathi synthetic declension of the commoner forms of nouns. The only synthetic case which is now employed in prose is the citive, and this can always be formed from the general oblique case by adding an s to the end of the word. It is therefore not given in the following table. ghoqie, the gardener's horses.

mailyzici ghédi, the gardener's mare. mdlydcyd ghédyd, the gagdenerls mares.

mrilydcé ghédé, the gardener's horse (neut.). mzilydci ghédi, the gardener's horses (neut.). »

The suffix tsd, ci, cF, is derived from the Sanskrit suffix tyakas, Pr. ca6, which is used in much the same sense. In Sanskrit it may be added either to the locative or to the unmodified base of the word to which it is attached, thus, ghéfaké-tyakas or ghégaka-tyakas. Similarly in Marathi, while it is usually added to the general oblique base, it may also be added to the unmodified noun, in which case it has a more distinctly adjectival force. The use of Lui has been influenced by the fact that the Sanskrit word kftyas, Pr. kicca6, also takes the same form in Marathi. As explained in the article HINDOSTANI, synonyms of this word are used in other Indo-Aryan languages to form suffixes of the genitive.1 Strong adjectives, including genitives, can be declined like substantives, and agree with the qualified noun in gender, number and case. When the substantive is in an oblique case, the adjective is put into the general oblique form without any defining post position, which is added to the substantive alone. Weak adjectives are not inflected in modern prose, but are infected in poetry. As in other - 'u

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

Meaning. Ear. Horse. Gardener. Bed. Fireplace. Mare. House. Horse. Pearl. Sing. I

Nom. . kdn ghédd mail? khd; wil ghridi ghar ghédé' mot? Gen. obl. . . kdm! ghédyzi mzilyd khéfé mil? ghddi gharzi ghédyri métyri Pl .

ihiom. . . k6n ghédé' méli khdiq mili ghédyq gharé ghéqii m5ty§ Gen. obl. . kliné ghédyi mdlyzi khdfzi c12li ghédyri ghard ghédyzi mélyci The usual post positions are;-

Instrumental: né, plural ni, by. Dative: ld, plural also mi, to Indo-Aryan languages, comparison is effected by putting the noun with which comparison is made in the ablative case. The pronouns closely follow the Prakrit originals. The origin of all these is discussed in the article HINDOSTANI, and the account need not be repeated here. As usual in these languages, there or for. Ablative: han, 1211, from. Genitive: tszi, of. Locativ€:“'t, in. We thus get the following complete modern declension of ghar, a house (neut.) 1-Sing.


Nom. ghar ghar§

Acc. ghar gharé

Instr. ghaniné ghanjni

Dat. ghafds, ghafdld ghanis, ghardld, gharciné Abl. ghardhdn, gharzin ghanihiin

Gen. ghanitsd gharétsa

Loc. gharit ghardt

XVII. 22

is no pronoun of the third person, its place being supplied by the demonstratives. The following are the principal pronominal orms:-

1Fuller information regarding all the above post positions will be found in G. A. Grierson's article “ On Certain Suffixes in the Modern Indo-Aryan Vernaculars, " on pp. 473 seq. of the Zeitschrift fzir vergleichende Sprachforschung for 1903.