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mi, I, instr. mi, myd, dat. mold, obl. madz; iimhi, we, instr. dmhi, obl. dmhzi; mzidzhd, rny, of me; dmtsd, our, of us. ni, thou, instr. til, bwd, dat. tuld, obl. tudz; tumhi, you, instr.

tumhi, obl. twmhi; tudzhd, thy, of thee; tumtsd, your, of you. dpan, self, obl. dpfma, gen. lip“lri. This is also employed as an honorific pronoun of the second person, and, in addition, to mean “ we including you."

hd, this, fem. hi, neut. hi; t6, he, that, fem. ti, neut. ti; dzé, who, fem.ji, neut. je.

kégz, who? kay, what? obl. kdia; kéni, any one; kihi, anything. In all these the plural is employed honorific ally instead of the singular.

Conjugation.-In Prakrit (q.v.) the complicated system of Sanskrit conjugation had already disappeared, and all verbs fell into two classes, the first, or a-, conjugation, and the second, or E-, conjugation, in which the E represents the aya of the Sanskrit tenth conjugation and of causal and denominative verbs. Marathi follows Prakrit in this respect and has two conjugations. The first, corresponding to the Prakrit a-class, as a rule consists of intransitive verbs, and the second, corresponding to the e- or causal class, of transitive verbs, but there are numerous exceptions. Verbs whose roots end in vowels or in h belong partly to one and partly to the other conjugation. These conjugations differ only in the present and past participles and in the tenses formed from them. Here, in the first conjugation an a, and in the second conjugation an i, is inserted between the base and the termination.

The only original Prakrit tenses which have survived in Marathi are the present and the imperative. The present has lost its original meaning and is now a habitual past. It is also the base of the Marathi future. These three tenses, the habitual past, the imperative and the future, are conjugated as follows. They should e compared with the corresponding forms in the article PRAKRIT. The verb selected is the root ugh, rise, of the first conjugation. 4 Habitual past I t- IF tu

(Old present), mpera ive. u re.

Person I used to rise. Let me rise. I shall rise. Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. I uihé uthii ulhzi uthii uphén uthii

2 u;hés ughi uth uthd uphafil uihél

3 uthé uthat ughé ughét uihél u§ h“tilA As in Rajasthani, Bihari and the Indo-Aryan language of Nepal (see PAHARI), the future is formed by adding l, or in the First person singular n, to the old present. In the second person singular the I has been added to a form derived from the Pr. ulphasi, which is also the origin of the old present uphés. Some scholars, however, see in uihaii a derivation of the Prakrit future utphihisi, thou shalt ariselbpnd a confusion of the Prakrit present and future is quite ssi e.


The remaining tenses are modern forms derived from the participles. The verbal nouns, participles and infinitives are as follows:-

Prakrit Marathi Marathi

(First First Second

Conjugation). Conjugation. Conjugation. Verbal Noun ugphagziam uthmé, the act mzifmé, the act of rising. of killing.

Intinitive . ufthium uphii, to rise. mzirii, to kill. Present Participle utihanté, uphat, u1h“td, mdrit, mziritzi, uilhantaé rising. killing.

Past Participle ufghiallaé ughalci, risen. mzirilzi, killed. Future Participle uhhapaadé uphmdr, about mdr“mi1, about Active to rise. to kill.

Future Participle - upthiavvaé uthziwzi, about méfdwd, about Passive to be risen. to be killed.

Conjunctive Par- ufphiu uphiin, having mcinin, having ticiple l risen. killed.

The only form that requires notice is that of the conjunctive participle. It is derived from the Apabhrarhéa form unhiu, to which the dative sufhx n (old Marathi ni, niyd) has been added. Various tenses are formed by adding personal suffixes to the present, past or future passive participle. When the subject of the verb is in the nominative the tense so formed agrees with it in gender, number and person. We may note four such tenses: a present, ufh“t5, I rise; a past, u!h"l5, I rose; past conditional, uZh“t6, had I risen; and a subjunctive, uihdwd, I should rise. In the present, the terminations are relics of the verb substantive, and in the other tenses of the personal pronouns. In these latter, as there is no pronoun of the third person, the third persons have no termination, but are simply the unmodified participle. We thus get the present and the past conjugated as follows, with a masculine subject:- Present, I rise.

Past, I rose.

Singular. Plural.





uph"t6 u;h“l5







u§ h“l¢it




The feminine and neuter forms differ from the above: thus, u!h“tés, thou (fem.) risest; uphalis, thou (fem.) didst rise; and so on for the other persons and for the neuter. It will be observed that, in the case of transitive verbs, while the present participle is active, the past and future passive participles are passive in meaning. The same is the case with the future passive participle of the intransitive verb. In tenses, therefore, formed from these participles the sentence must be construed passively. The subject must be put into the instrumental case, and the participle inflected to agree with the object. If the object is not expressed, or, as is sometimes the case, is expressed in the guise of a kind of ethic dative, the participle is construed impersonally, and is employed in the neuter fidrm. Thus (present tense) mul“g¢i (nom. masc.) péthi vécitri, the boy reads a book, but (past tense) mul“gycinE (instrumental péthi (nom. fem.) 'vdcili (fem.) the boy read a book, literally, by-theboy a-book was-read; or mublgyzini prithilzi (dative) vdcilé (neuter), the boy read the book, literally, by-the-boy, with-reference-to the-book, it-(impersonal)-was-read. Similarly in the subjunctive formed from the future passive participle, muZ“gy¢in5 péthi vécdwi, the boy should read a book (by-the-boy a-book is-to-be-read) or mublgyfiné péthilzi vécdwi, the boy should read the book [by-the-boy with-reference-to-the-book, it (impersonal)-is-to-be-readl. As an example of the subjunctive of an intransitive verb, we have twd ughtiwé, by-thee it-is-to-be-risen, thou shouldst rise. As in intransitive verbs the passive sense is not so strong, in their case the tense may also be used actively, as in tzi ughziwzis, thou shouldst rise, lit., thou (art) to-be-risen. It will be noted that when a participle is used passively it takes no personal suffix. We have seen that the resent tense is formed by compounding the present participle with the verb substantive. Further tenses are similarly made by suffixing, without compounding, various tenses of the verb substantive to the various participles. Thus mi what dhi, I am rising; mi what h6t5, I was rising; myzi uihiivi hété (impersonal construction), I should have risen. In the case of tenses formed from the past participle, the auxiliary is appended, not to the participle, but to the past tense, as in mf? u¢h“l5 dhé, I have risen; myé mdrild dhé (personal passive construction) or myé mdrilé dhé impersonal passive construction), I have killed. Similarly mi u[h“l5 h6t5 (active construction), I had risen. The usual forms of the present and past of the verb substantive are:- Singular. »

Present, I am. Past, If was (masc).

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.

I lihé tihif h5f5 h6t5

2 zihés dhd hénis héiii V

3 dhé dh at hzitd haze

The past changes for gender, but the present is immutable in this respect. Ahé is usually considered to be a descendant of the Sanskrit asmi, I am,1 while h6t5 is derived from the Pr. homlaé, the present participle of what corresponds to the Skr. root bhzi, become.

A potential passive and a causal are formed by adding ai/ to the root of a simple verb. The former follows the first, or intransitive, and the latter the second or transitive conjugation. 'I' he potential passive of a neuter verb is necessarily construed impersonally. The causal verb denotes indirect agency; thus, kar“n§ , to do, karawné, to cause a person to do; tydcyd-kadiin myri £5 karazfilé, I caused him to do that, literally, by-means-of-him by-me that was-caused-to-bedone. The potential, being passive, has the subject in the dative (cf. Latin mihi est ludendum) or in the instrumental of the genitive, as in malzi (dative), or mdjhydné (instr. of mddzhd, of me), uth'z/até, I can rise, literally, for-me, or by-my-(action), rising-can-be-done. So, Rdmdlé, or Rdmdcydné, péthi -vdcavali, Rim could read a book (by R. a book could be read).

Several verbs are irregular. These must be learnt from the grammars. Here we may mention hziné, to become, past participle dzhéld; yéné, to come, past participle did; and dzdné, to go, past participle gélci. There are also numerous compound verbs. One of these, making a passive, is formed by conjugating the verb dzzi-115, to go, with the past participle of the principal verb. Thus, mcirilfi dzcité, he is being killed, literally, he goes killed. 1 See, however, Hoernle, Comparative Grammar, p. 364. I