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MECHANICS


sum is the sum of the projections of the several vectors, the equation (2) gives

1 A I

if x be the projection of OG. Hence if the Cartesian co-ordinates of Pl, P2, P, relative to any axes, rectangular or oblique be (xl, yl, zl), (xl, yl, zz), , (x, , y, ., z,), the mass-Centre (x, y, z) is determined by the formulae -&=E(mx)' -=E(my), =E(mz)

mm) Q mm) Z sony (6)

If we write x=x-l-E, y=y+17, z=Z+§ ', so that S, 17, § ' denote co-ordinates relative to the mass-centre G, we have from (6) 2#(m€) =0 2(mn) =0 2(ms“) =0- (7)

One or two special cases may be noticed. If three masses a, H, 'y be situate at the vertices of a triangle ABC, the mass-centre of, S and -y is at a point A' in BC, such that B. BA'='y.A'C. The mass centre (G) of a, /3, -y will then divide AA' so that a, AG = (B+-y) GA'. It is easily proved that

a:B:»y=ABGA:AGCA:AGAB;

also, by giving suitable values (positive or negative) to the ratios a: B:-y we can make Gassume any assigned position in the plane ABC. We have here the origin of the “ barycentric co-ordinates " of Mobius, now usually known as “ areal " co-ordinates. If u.-H3-|-'y=o, G is at infinity; if o.=;3='y, G is at the intersection of the median lines of the triangle; ifa: B: 'y=a: b: c, Gis at the centre of the inscribed circle. Again, if G be the mass-centre of four particles a, H, -y, 6 situate at the vertices of a tetrahedron ABCD, we find a:B:-y:6=tet° GBCD:tet“GCDA:tet” GDAB:tet" GABC, and by suitable determination of the ratios on the left hand we can make G assume any assigned position in space. If a-l-B-Py-l-6=O, G is at infinity; if a.=B=-y =6, G bisects the lines joining the middle points of opposite edges of the tetrahedron ABCD; if u.: B: 'y: 6= AILCD:ACDA:ADAB:AABC, G is at the centre of the inscribed sp ere.

If we have a continuous distribution of matter, instead of a system of discrete particles, the summations in (6) are to be replaced by integrations. Examples will be found in textbooks of the calculus and of analytical statics. As particular cases: the massfcentre of a uniform thin triangular plate coincides with that of three equal particles at the corners; and that of a uniform solid tetrahedron coincides with that of four equal particles at the vertices. Again, the mass-centre of a uniform solid right circular cone divides the axis in the ratio 3: I; that of a uniform solid hemisphere divides the axial radius in the ratio 3: 5.

It is easily seen from (6) that if the configuration of a system of particles be altered by “homogeneous strain” (see ELASTICITY) the new position of the mass-centre will be at that point of the strained figure which corresponds to the original mass-centre. The formula (2) shows that a system of concurrent forces -> 6 -5

represented by ml OPl, m;» OPl, m, .OP, . will have a ~>

resultant represented by E(m).OG. If we imagine O to recede to infinity in any direction we learn that a system of parallel forces proportional to ml, ml, . mn, acting at Pl, P2 .... P, have E(m) which acts always through

to the given mass-system. This

a resultant proportional to

a point G fixed relatively

contains the theory of the “ centre of gravity ” (§§ 4, 9). We may note also that if Pl,

represent two configurations of the series of particles, then ->

mm . 55) =2(m).GG', (8)

where G, G' are the two positions of the mass-centre. The Pg, . . . P", and P1/, P2', . . . Pnl

6 -> -9

forces m1.PlPl', ml. PlP2', m, P, ,P, .', considered as localized vectors, do not, however, as a rule reduce to a single resultant.

We proceed to the theory of the plane, axial and polar quadratic moments of the system. Thq axial moments have alone a dynamical significance, but the others are useful as subsidiary conceptions. If hl, hl, hu be the perpendicular distances of the particles from any fixed plane, the sum Z(mh') is the quadratic moment with respect to the plane. If pi, Pz, . pl. be the perpendicular distances from any given X(mp') is the quadratic moment with respect to axis, the sum

the axis; it is also called the moment af inertia about the axis. r. be the distances from a fixed point, the sum quadratic moment with respect to that point we divide any of the above quadratic moments If Yi, 72, . . .

E(mr') is the

(or pole). If

by the total mass E(m), the result is called the mean square of the distances of the particles from the respective plane, axis or pole. In the case of an axial moment, the square root of the resulting mean square is called the radius of gyration of the system about the axis in question. If we take rectangular axes through any point O, the quadratic moments with respect to the co-ordinate planes are

If = 2( lx')» Il/= E(m3'”)l L = E(m2'); (9) those with respect to the co-ordinate axes are I1/z= Elm(f)'2”l'Z2)i» In 2lm(Z2"l"x2)l1 IW = 2{m(x2+y”)}= (Io) whilst the polar quadratic moment with respect to O is I, ,= 2{m(x“-I-y”+z2)}. (11)

We note that

I1/z=I1l'l'Izy In: Iz'l'I vl In/= Ir"l'I|lr (12) and

Io:Iz'l'Iy'l°Iz=%(Iyz"l'Izz'l'Izy)-In

the case of continuous distributions of matter the summations in (9), (Io), (1 I) are of course to be replaced by integrations For a uniform thin circular plate, we find, taking the origin at its centre, and the axis of z normal to its plane, L, =§ Ma2, where M is the mass and a the radius. Since I, =I, , I, =-0, we deduce In =il/Ia', I, ,, = %Ma'; hence the value of the squared radius of gyration is for a diameter kai and for the axis of symmetry ia? Again, for a uniform solid sphere having its centre- at the origin we find l0=§ l/laz, I, = I, , = I, =§ Ma2, I, ,, = In = IW = § Ma2; i. e. the square of the radius of gyration with respect to a diameter is § a'. The method of homogeneous strain can be applied to deduce the corresponding results for an ellipsoid of semi-axes a, b, c. If the co-ordinate axes coincide with the principal axes, We find I, =§ Ma2, I, =§ Mb'l, I, =§ Mc2, whence I, ,, =}M (122-l-02), &c. If ¢>(x, y, z) be any homogeneous quadratic function of x, y, z, we have

2lm<t>(xl yl Z)}= 2}m¢(?c+E, y+1/ Z-l-s”)}=2{m¢(v?, y,2)}+2{m<1>(E,11, t)}, (14)

since the terms which are bilinear in respect to x, y, z, and E, ry, I vanish, in virtue of the relations (7). Thus 1. = 1f+2<m>3e, no

L, .= 1115+ EW)-(y2+ 22), (16)

with similar relations, and

I0 = lG+

The formula (16) expresses that the squared radius of gyration about any axis (Ox) exceeds the squared radius of gyration about a parallel axis through G by the square of the distance between the two axes. The formula (17) is due to ]. L. Lagrange; it may be writtenz(OP2) E(GP2)

m ~ m . > 2

§ ;r7 EET-+OG, (18)

and expresses that the mean square of the distances of the particles from O exceeds the mean square of the distances from G by OG2. The mass-centre is accordingly that point the mean square of whose distances from the several particles is least. If in (18) we make O coincide with Pl, Pl, . P, , in succession, we obtain

o -l-mg PlP22-l- -l-mn P1P, ,2=2(m . GP?)-l-2(m) GPl2, m, . P2Pl2+ 0 + ..+m».1>lP, ,2=s(m. GP2)+E(m). GP22, (19) M1 . 15)lPl2-|lml. P»i>,2+ f. + ' 0 '=2<m.'GP2H~2<m>1 GPn2. If we multiply these equations by ml, ml, m, ., respectively, and add, we find

E2(m, m P, P,2)= E(m) 2(m GP2), (20) provided the summation 22 on the left hand be understood to include each pair of particles once only. Thistheorem, also due to Lagrange, enables us to express the mean square of the distances of the particles from the centre of mass in terms of the masses and mutual distances. For instance, considering four equal particles at the vertices of a regular tetrahedron, we can infer that the radius R of the circumscribing sphere is given by R'=§ - a', if a be the length of an edge. Another type of quadratic moment is supplied by the deviation moments, or products of inertia of a distribution of matter. Thus the sum E(m.yz) is called the “ product of inertia ” with respect to the planes y=o, z=o. This may be expressed in terms of the product of inertia with respect to parallel planes through G by means of the formula (r4); viz.:- z(m yz)=Z(m.1y§ ')-I-2(m) .SG (21)