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962
[PRACTICAL
SHIPBUILDING


In some positions rivets like the above cannot be driven into place and properly hammered u; resort is then. made to rivets which have screwed points, called) lap rivets, shaped as shown in fig. 77. That shown at (B) is used where it is necessary to make the surface flush, but not

necessary to remove

the' rivet

for . examination

of plating; and

when hove right

up, the square

head is chipped

off and the sur»

face hammered

smooth. In other

positions patterns

(A) or (C)

are used as may

be most suitable.

The machines 'used in the shipyard have been much improved of recent years. The "one most used is the punching and shearing Machine machine, on one side of which plates of all thicknesses iip mais to 2 m. may be cut or sheared to, any desired form, 'while on the other side rivet holes may'be punched of any required size. Special shears are provided with v-shaped cutters for shearing angle bars, but in some cases the cutters of ordinary shears may be replaced by v-shaped cutters for this purpose. When the plates and bars leave the shearing and punching machine their edges are rough and slightly distorted, to remove which it is necessary in many cases toiplane them; This is usually done by special machines provided for the purpose. In the most modern types theicutters are duplicated and -the machine arranged to cut both ways. When it is required to cut a square edge on the flange of an angle bar to facilitate caulking, a pneumatic chipping machine of recent introduction is frequently used, but this is more usually done in a planin machine. In shipbuilding a great deal of drilling must be done by iiand, but, where it is possible, drilling machines are employed. The most modern forms can drill a number of holes at the same time. For countersunk work it 'is necessary to make the hole funnel-shaped, as will be seen from fig. 77. This shape is rapidly given to the holes already punchedlor drilled by means of a special drilling machine, which can be veryeasiiyand rapidly manipulated. 'The use of portable drills, to avoid hand la our, is rapidly increasing, and several t pes are in use, operated by electric motors, compressed air or flexible shafting. They are carried to any position required. The hole made by a drill is cylindrical, but that made in the process of punching is conical. On one side of the plate its diameter is determined by the diameter of the punch, and on the other by the diameter of the die, which must be greater than that of the punch. This taper tends to produce close and sound riveting, as the joint is closed both by the knocking down of the rivet and by the contraction of the rivet on boolin . On the other hand, the operation of punching injures the steel in the neighbourhood of the hole, and for work subjected to great stress this deteriorated material must be removed by countersinking or by drilling the hole to a larger size, or the quality of the material may' be partially restored by annealing. The process of annealing consists in heating the steel to a good red, then allowing it to cool very slowly; during this process parts of the material which have been unduly distressed in workin regain their strength by.molecular rearrangements in the distressed parts. This process occurs to some extent when hot rivets are introduced into the holes and hammered up. The steel immediately adjacent to the rivet' is heated, and afterwards cools gradually as the heat becomes distributed into the body of the plate. In some experiments carried out by the Admiralty in Pembroke Dockyard in 1905, it was found that theedect of punching holes close together, as for a butt-strap, was to diminish the tensile strength of the plates about xo%; that hot riveting restored about half of this; and that when holes were drilled and countersunk right through, also when holes were punched % in. and countersunk right through, so as to enlarge hole to i in. in diameter, there was no loss. In addition to the . machines mentioned above, many special appliances have recently been introduced into slupyards for the purpose .of economically carrying out definite operations rendered possible by the use 'of mild steel. Ships .built with a bar keel require the garboard strake plates on each si e to be flanged on one edge, so as to fit against the bar keel. Thisllasging was formerly carried out by heating the lates and treating them hot, butnow a very powerful machine, called) a keel-plate bending machine, and usually worked b hydraulic power, is employed for the purpose with the plate cold. Ylanging plates cold has also become general for a variety of, purposes. Ina. bulkhead, stiffening is necessary, and for this purpose angle bars, were commonly used; the horizontal stiffeners are now fre uently formed by flanging the lower edges of the plates. Instead Jf (httiug an angle bar to connect two plates at rig t angles to one another, the edge orend of one may be Banged, and half the weight of the angle bapand the rivet work saved. Forall such work some» what lighter Hanging machines than the keel-plate bending machine are used; they are generally worked by hydraulic power, but there is no difficulty in driving them by any other means. Ill 'H

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Another modern appliance is the scarfing machine, which is used chiefly in connexion with the lapped butts of shell and other plating. Before its introduction it was usual to bring the ends of the plates together and cover the 'joint with a short plate called a butt-strap, secured to both plates with a proper arrangement of rivets (see fig. 78). It is now more usual in merchant ships to work overlap butts, some half of the weight of the butt-strap and riveting and other work. being saved thereb, althou h the appearance may not be quite so sightly. The diffkulty with this system is that the passing plates on each side have their edges lapped over the ends of the lap butt, and inorder that they may be brought close some machining is necessary; this is called scarfing, i.e. slottirlig away the corner o the projecting butt so as to produce smooth su aces for the side laps fsee section at' A I3, fig. 785). The machine used for this operation IS a slottmg machine with two heads, so as to slot both edges of the plate at the same time; it is provided with a table which can be adjusted to the necessary bevel, so that the slotting tools may reduce " the thickness of the edges operated on in a gradual taper to a knife edge. A more recent appliance for reducing' weight is the joggling machine. Asalread described, the usual method of working the shell-plating isby alternate inside and outside strakes of plating, the outside plates overlapping the inside plates, and the space between them and the frames being filled in by slips or liners. These liners throughout the ship amount to a considerable weight, and the object of the joggling is to do away with the necessity for them. This is effected by shaping the outside plates as shown in section b. fi . 79. Sometimes the frames are joggled instead of the plates, as shown in section c, fig; 79¥ the inside, plate lies.in thefrecessed portion of the frame formed by the joggling process, and the outside plate on the unrecessed portion, its edge lapping over the edge of the inside plate the usual width. The angle bar in' this case must be heated, and the hydraulic press is placed so as to be readily accessible for the handling of the part to be heated. The system of joggling the frarneshas not been adopted to nearly so large an extentas that of joggling the plates. ' V

Frame-bevelling machines appear to be growing in favour. "The machine is placed on rails, near to and across the mouth of the frame furnace, so that 'it can be readily placed in position for the frame bar to be drawn out of the furnace directly through it, and moved to one side whennot required. In the machine a series of rollers, which can be inclined to suit the varying' bevel required, operate on the bar. The inclination of the roller is varied as the bar passes alon, a dial and pointer giving the angle of bevel at each instant. .gs the bar passes through, the workman, with his eye on the dial, manipulates the machine so as to give it the required bevel. It is, afterwards completed on the slabs, the form being taken from the scrive-board in the usual way. I ., The shipyard should be supplied with modern machinery of the most approved type, in order to produce the best work at economical rates: rolls for straighten in, rand bending plates, for fairin and bending beams and angle bars; shaping and slotting machines; lathes and milling machines; heavy planing machines. It should also have a blacksmith's shop, saw-mills, jpiners' shops, &c., all fully eqpipped for completing, as far as possi le, the work of the yar . T e worksho s and machines should be distributed so that, as far as possible, the material moves steadily along, as the various operations are performed upon it, 'to its place in the ship. Pneumatic tools are often preferred for light work, such as chip inghdrilling, rimering and caulking; they are also occasionally used) for riveting, but they are not yet much in favour for this class of work. Hydraulic power is particularly well adapted for heavy presses, suc as for eel- late Hanging, for punching and shearin, and es ecially for puncliing manholes and lightening holes in piates, and) for heavy riveting. It is also very successfully applied for pressing to shape a great variety of small fittings made of steel or iron.. F orusuch machines as ro ls, ordinary shears and punches, Winches, &c, , separate steam engines are still frequently fitted, but there is a, very marked tendency to replace all 't eseby electric motors. ' Electric power for driving all the machinery has been introduced into many- shipyards. It has many advanta sz all the power required in t e yard may be generated in one ieuildingin any position, containing the boilers, steam engines and electric generators, and the, whole may be designed and worked so as to 'secure great economy. The current is supplied either to motors directly driving the heavier or outlying machines, or to motors driving a line of shafting where the machines are of a lighter character and are arranged in compact groups. Fixed machines canbe placed where most convenient for the work, without any reference to the position of the boilers or.other machinery, and a large number of machines can be very readily made portable for the li hter classes of work, The powermay be transmitted with but litti loss, whereas with steam-driven machines at a distance from the boilers, lines of steam piping must be introduced, and loss of power is entailed. The savin which the system of electric driving effects over that of steam driving in the consumption of coal in a large shipyard is considerable, an disclaimed by those who have adopted it to be sufficient to justify the large capital expenditure required to convert; a shipyard from the latter system to the former., ~, .

As the plates, beams, angle bars, Z-bars, &c., are delivered, they

must be stored in convenient racks, with marks showing for what