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FIG. 115.-Stern Framing, Shaft Tunnel, &c., of Single-Screw Ship. bars extending to the upper deck; each tier of beams is securely riveted to them, and their lower ends are connected to the margin plate by strong brackets. At intervals the channel-bar frames are replaced by deep built-up frames, the frequency of which depends on local requirements. Heavy side stringers of the same depth as the deep frames run fore and aft, to stiffen the side between the bilges and the first plated deck. Where the deep frames 'are cut by these ~—Y, -:vrv~-'T¢-=-v~.. ... ., '.P'¢

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adopted in large passenger steamers of this class! In both the transverse framing becomes deeper and stronger as the extremities are approached, while the decks and side stringers are all continued to the extremities, finishing in strong breast-hooks, and additional stringers, breast-hooks and panting beams are introduced. It is worthy of note that the rudder and steering gear are in this vessel entirely under water, so that she may be used for War purposes without running the risk of disablement by the rudder or steering gear being struck by projectiles. Above the water the stern is finished off so as to have the appearance of being litted with an ordinary rudder. This important departure from the usual practice was first introduced by Professor Biles in the “ City of Paris, " and the “ Campania ” and her sister the “ Lucania ” were in 1902 the only British ships so fitted.

Fig. 122 gives in perspective the general structural arrangements of theJapanesecruiser“ Idzumo, "andf1gs. I I8-I2 I (PlateXIV.)arefron1 photographs of the vessel in course of construction. It will be seen that the departures from the structural arrange- Differences ments of a merchant ship are very considerable. As already between pointed out, lighter scant lings are used in warships than War and in ordinary merchant ships. This is effected by more nzmhant carefully devised and more costly arrangements of framing S ps and plating, and by making the structural features necessary in a warship for protection, &c., serve also for local and general strength. FIG. 116.-Stern Framing of the “ Campania.” - - A - " ' stringers, the strength of the frames is continued by gusset plates, as ., I F., ,, s own. - ~

Some further structural arrangements usually adopted in British, T ships are shown in figs. II3 to 115. Fig. II3, to which reference has 'n ' . . . . f . already been made, shows in detail the construction of a bulkhead, , g, 1 , ;, with the framing in wake of it, and the same details at an ordinary frame; also the stringers, beams, pillars, &c. The bulkhead itself, " J ' I ' f 1 1 stops at the tank top, being secured to it by double angle bars, and ' "" r "T 1 ' ' “iw-f — —the floor immediately beneath it is'made water-tight. It would -, f ~, l ' I ...B, ,.. involve very costly work to make the bulkhead water-tight if theside and bilge stringers were made continuous; these have therefore .<. -. .2 . . f - ' 2- - -;=- -~ f-f ° been cut, and the continuity of the longitudinal strength is main- p tained, as far as possible, by the large brackets shown in the plan. '-fr' "rf ~ rr ri " rr f "*' "-Besides bulb stiffeners, the bulkhead is provided with 'built-up ' * I vertical stiffeners at AB and a built-up horizontal stiliencr at CD. I Fig. II4 shows the arrangement for special strengthening at the extreme fore end of a vessel, between the collision bulkhead and the stem, and below 'the main deck, these consisting chiefly of panting stringers, panting beams and breast hook. Fig. I 15 shows the general arrangement of stern framing of a single-screw ship, iI1ClL1d1Hg U16 shaft tunnel. A water-tight door, which can be closed when necessary from above the level of the outside water, shuts off communication between the enginerroom and tunnel; the form of the stern post a.nd aperture frame casting is shown, with its attachment to the centre keelson and other details.

Figs. II6 and 117 show the arrangements of the stern and bow framing of the “ Campania, ” which may be taken as those usually FIG. 117.-Bow Framing of the “ Campania.” In warships, frames are placed at greater distances apart, 4 ft. amidships and 3 ft. at the extremities being the usual spacing, as compared with some 2 ft. in a merchant ship, On the other hand, there are more continuous longitudinal in the framing of a warship, which extend in depth from the inner bottom to the shell-plating, and give 1We are indebted to the late Dr Elgar, F.R.S., for these and

other plans of the “ Campania.”