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local support to the bottom as well as general strength to the vessel. There are in a warship so many structural features, such as watertight bulkheads and fiats or platforms, required for the necessary subdivision, armour decks, plating and framing behind armour, &c., which are made to contribute to the strength of the structure as a whole, that the strength of the shell-plating and the transverse framing can be proportionately reduced.

In a merchant ship there are many considerations which require the structure to be stronger and heavier than would be necessary door or from a deck above water, or from both. Below the protective deck are the engine and boiler spaces, magazines, shell-rooms, submerged torpedo rooms, and steering-gear. A passage is provided on each side of the ship just below the protective deck, for the supply of ammunition to the secondary armament.

Fig. 118 shows the “ Idzumo " partially in frame, looking forward from the after extremity: the frames below the armour deck over a considerable length of the ship are complete, and a number of the I pleams which caiiqryhthqe armpir deck arei in place. Figfhl 19 fgiows e ram s em, w ic as us een ace in position. e co ision bulkhead and the framing below tli)e armour deck are for the most ll I if* part in place. Fig. 120 gives the top of the armour deck, which is > I I '- ' nearly completed, as seen from the fore end, with the forward citadel """' . "i' . 'f Q. 1 2,5 -. f:, .“', ':', ,'I

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// FIG. 123.-Steering Gear of Merchant Ship. V bulkhead in course of construction. Fig. 121 shows theiafter part v=h— ~'<, of the yessel, which is not so far advanced as the forward portion ~ ff shown in fig. 120. In fig. 121 the framing has been carried to a bulk||||| 'B

FIG. 122.-Japanese Qruiser “ Idgumo "; midship portion, in perspective.

to withstand the wind and waves which she may encounter. The continual change of cargo and of disposition of cargo necessitates special local strength throughout. The custom, often pursued, of grounding vessels to discharge cargo, and their liability to touch the ground in the ports they frequent, make the provision of great strength in the floors and the shell-plating essential. Other considerations affect the decks, and call for local strength in them with corresponding increase of weight.

Most warships, except gunboat, torpedo and other small craft, have double bottoms, chiefly for protection against damage in action, but also against accidental grounding. The space between the bottoms is divided into a large number of compartments by making some of the frames and longitudinal water-tight. head near the after extremity, the rudder post is in place, and the bearing for the rudder head can be seen in the foreground. The construction of the armour deck is proceeding, and the after citadel bulkhead is also well advanced, though no backing is yet upon it, as in the case of the forward bulkhead, but the base of the redoubt which carries the after turret is erected.

The fittings in a ship cannot be fully described in the present article, but we shall conclude with some account of the auxiliary machinery. Two ordinary arrangements of steering-gear A 1" fitted in merchant steamers are shown in fig. 123. In the mféhlaw first example a three-quarter circular grooved rim, keyed new to the rudder head, carries the steering-chains, which are led forward one on each side of the hatches to the steam engine, placed in this case in the engine-room casing, and controlled by shafting from the bridge. The usual steering-wheel is fitted on the bridge, and actuates the controlling valve of the steam engine by means .of the shafting. The second example is very similar to the first: a quadrant is keyed The inner bottom extends on each side to the turn of the bilge, and from that point is carried up vertically as a wing bulkhead, as shown in fig. 122, the wing spaces thus I. 5 t formed being occasionally utilized for coal-bunkers. The p|an ' . I V, framing, consisting of frame bars, reverse frame bars and ., , ...4. 'fn . “Q ng, ” ' ; frame plates or brackets, is usually carried up in a fair ' ., ~, Qff ii § 2 . /'>f§§ |} 8 curve to the armour shelf, supposing the vessel to be =:¢§ x- .. @ 1(é=, ,, '§ ] 1* ig an armour-clad, as in fig. 122. From the edge of the . i' ', “ 'Mlf ii ' Q, armour, which is generally about 5 ft. below the load water- ' ' j, ' 1, " "'§ } 5 AQ" lj line, a change in structure is made, and the framing behind ' ¢ the armour is set back from the outside of the ship sufii- U l . ciently to admit of an internal skin of steel plating (often M l sf worked in two thicknesses), teak backing, upon which the armour is embedded, and the armour itself, to be carried | L dw Y with the surface of the armour flush with the shell-plating. """;'-°'~ 'Q-"3 — — ~—;- The vertical frames behind armour are spaced 2 ft. apart, °'°""'"' °"°' ', E and the longitudinal are made intercostal, the whole hav- - i * mf., A 5, f'f,2”', ,, ,°, 'f, "[f, ';, ';'f ing exceptional strength, to support the armour. Above 'ing " ' f f ' " ' lf 7°"~ W ¢'¢»=~/nl the armour another change is made, the frames being 'lui' l l U H #Ili '"'° brought again to the outside of the ship, and the topside . ' I Q-Q plating directly attached to them becoming Hush with the -~ T' , outside of the armour. There is generally a strong deck, B, m ' 'called the protective deck, extending from stem to stern in " ' 'the form of a turtle'back, the lower edges being at the Ekvation armour shelf on each side of the ship, and the top of the < arch forming the first deck above water, as indicated in fig. 120. With a view to maintaining its defensive power where it has to be perforated for funnels and air shafts, armour gratings, or armour bars as they are called, are fitted in the openings. As much water-tight subdivision as possible is introduced throughout the ship, but for communication between the various compartments openings are rovided in the bulkheads, having watertight doors which can be cioied either from a position close to the FIG. 124.-Steering Gear of Warship.

on the rudder head, and worked by chains led over pulleys one on each side of the ship to the steam gear, which in this case is placed on the bridge, close to the wheel. In all such cases gear is also provided by which in an emergency the ship can be steered by hand, by steering-wheels placed close to the rudder head, as indicated in

the figures.