to hunt, on account of the numbers of porters, and followers, with which a sportsman is obliged to encumber himself, while British India is relatively the cheapest. South of the Zambezi in Africa, it is usual to transport stores and equipment in an ox-wagon, and though the initial cost is heavy, great part of this can be recouped by selling the equipment at the end of the trip. No matter in what part of Africa it is purposed to hunt, it is advisable to bring everything, camp-equipment—Weissman tent, mosquito curtains, camp bedstead, table and chair—and all stores from England. These latter should be packed in strong boxes, each branded with the nature of its contents, to weigh when full 65 lb, the weight an African porter can conveniently carry. Beads and presents for natives should not be overlooked. In India, on the other hand, nearly everything can be procured cheaper and better there than in England, while as regards North America, as indeed everywhere, the expense of a shooting trip varies largely with locality; the outfit of wagons, horses and attendants requisite for Wyoming or Montana, being useless in British Columbia, or Alaska, where everything has to be “ packed ” on Indian porters. Of Central or Northern Asia it is difficult to speak with any degree of accuracy as regards expense; but on this important point, no matter in what part of the globe an expedition may be planned, information should be sought from only the latest and most reliable authorities.
The hunter's personal equipment, rifle, clothing, saddlery, &c., should be the best procurable. Where a camp bed is not practicable, a sleeping-bag of three partitions and waterproof back should be taken. Clothing must of course be adapte to the climate, but flannel must always be worn next the skin, and a cholera belt is a necessity. It should be remembered that clothing should err on the side of warmth; a chill can be contracted in the tropics just as easily as in a temperate clime, and is far more dangerous in its efiects. A small medicine-chest should form part of the equipment, and most medicines can now be obtained in easily portable tabloids. Warburg's fever tincture, and quinine, are essential in tropical or malarious districts. Cheap rubber-soled shoes, to be thrown away when worn out, are excellent for rock work, otherwise no footgear can equal a well-made English shooting boot. Good field-glasses are preferable to telescopes, on account of their hanciiness. Now that big game shooting has become the “ fashion," and facilities for world travel are increasing every year, people are prone to enter on the sport with but vague ideas as to its dangers, hardships and responsibilities. Presumably no one not of sound constitution would undertake an expedition to, say, Central Africa, or Asia; but even granted this necessary qualification, he may be naturally unfitted by temperament to deal with the discomforts and drawbacks inseparable from big game shooting, even under the most favourable conditions. He may be able to plant shot after shot on the bull's-eye of a stationary iron target, yet this is a very different matter from finding the shoulder of an animal moving through surroundings which closely assimilate with its own colouring, or from placing his bullet in exactly the right spot to stop the charge of an infuriated wild-beast. In such a situation, if eye, hand, or nerve fail him, the odds are that the creature will kill him instead of his killing it, for, as has been truly said, dangerous wild animals when wounded, or provoked beyond endurance, will hunt a human being as a terrier does a rabbit. In dealing with coloured retainers, whether Asiatic or African, the hunter should above all remember that he is a white man, and exact implicit obedience and respect, by combining firmness with scrupulously fair treatment. Again, to instance a minor, but none the less important, essential, how many would-be big-game hunters are there who can trust themselves to find their direction by a compass, or steer a course at night by the aid of the best-known constellations? Yet this is merely one of a hundred other requirements necessary to travel in a wild country. (P. St.)
SHOP, a term originally for a booth or stall where goods were sold, and in most cases also made, now used chiefly in the sense of a room or set of rooms in a building where goods are displayed for sale and sold by retail, also the building containing the rooms. Another application of the word is to the building or rooms in which the making or repairing of articles is carried on, a carpenter's shop, a repairing-shop, at engineering works and the like. In America, in the smaller towns and rural districts the “ shop ” is usually styled a “ store ” (O.F. ester, Late Lat. staurum, instaurare, to build, construct, in later use, to provide necessaries). While in America in the larger cities the word “ shop ” is becoming applied to the retail places of sale, in English usage “ store ” has in recent years become the recognized form for the large retail places for universal supply.
SHORE, JANE (d. 1527), mistress of the English king Edward IV., is said to have been the daughter of Thomas Wainstead, a. prosperous London mercer. She was well brought up, and married young to William Shore, a goldsmith. She attracted the notice of Edward IV., and soon after 1470, leaving her husband, she became the king's mistress. Edward called her the merriest of his concubines, and she exercised great influence; but, says More, “ never abused it to any man's hurt, but to many a man's comfort and relief.” After Edward's death she was mistress to Thomas Grey, marquess of Dorset, son of Elizabeth Woodville by her first husband. She also had relations with William Hastings, and may perhaps have been the intermediary between him and the Woodvilles. At all events she had political importance enough to incur the hostility of Richard of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III., who accused her of having practised sorcery against him in collusion with the queen and Hastings. Richard had her put to public penance, but the people pitied her for her loveliness and womanly patience; her husband was dead, and now in poverty and disgrace she became a prisoner in London. There Thomas Lynom, the king's solicitor, was smitten with her, and wished to make her his wife, but was apparently dissuaded. Jane Shore survived till 1527; in her last days she had to “ beg a living of many that had begged if she had not been.” More, who knew her in old age when she was “ lean, withered and dried up,” says that in youth she was “ proper and fair, nothing in her body that you would have changed, but if you would have wished her somewhat higher.” Her greatest charm was, however, her pleasant behaviour; for she was “ merry in company, ready and quick of answer.” She figured much in 16th-century literature, notably in the Mirrour for Magistrates, and in Thomas Heywood's Edward IV. The legend which connected Jane Shore with Shoreditch is quite baseless; the place-name is very much older.
Bibliography.—Most of our information as to Jane Shore comes from Sir Thomas More's Life of Richard III., edited by J. R. Lumby (Cambridge, 1883), supplemented a little by Edward Hall (Chronicle, pp. 363–364). See also H. B. Wheatley's edition of Percy's Reliques, ii. 264 (1876–1877), and ]. Gairdner's Life and Reign of Richard III (Cambridge, 1898). (C. L. K.)
SHORE, a word meaning (1) the margin or edge of land when bordering on a large piece of water, whether of an ocean or sea or lake, “ bank ” taking its place when applied to the borders on either side of a river; for the legal aspect of the “ shore,” i.e., the space bordering on tidal waters between high and low water mark, see Foreshore; (2) a prop of timber, used as a support, temporary or permanent, for a building when threatening to fall or during reconstruction (see Shoring), and more particularly a timber support placed against a ship's side when building on the stocks, or when ready for launching on the slips; the props which are the final supports knocked away at the moment of launching are called the “ dog-shores,” one of the very numerous uses of “ dog ” for mechanical devices of many kinds (see Ship-building). Both words are to be derived ultimately from the same source, viz., the root seen in “ shear,” to cut ofi; in sense (1) the word means a part cut or “ shorn ” oii, an edge, and appears in M.Eng. as schore, from O. Eng. sceran, to cut, shear; in sense (2) it is of Scandinavian origin and is an adaptation of the Nor. skora, a piece of timber cut off to serve as a prop or support.
SHOREDITCH, an eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W. by Islington, N.E. by Hackney, E. by Bethnal Green and Stepney, S. by the City of London, and W. by Finsbury. Pop. (1901), 118,637. It is a poor and crowded district extending east and west of Kingsland Road, and has a large artisan population. Chain-making, cabinet work, and other industries are carried on. An old form of the name is Soersditch, and the origin is lost, though early tradition connects it with Jane Shore, mistress of Edward IV. The parliamentary borough of Shoreditch includes the Hoxton and Haggerston divisions, each returning one member. In Hoxton is the Shoreditch technical institute. The borough council consists of a mayor,
7 aldermen and 42 councillors. Area, 657.6 acres.