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ST JOHNS—SAINT JOSEPH


Hosgitaliers en Terre Sainte et en Chypre (Paris, 1904), an invaluable work in which many hitherto obscure problems have been solved. It contains a full list of published authorities. Of English works may be mentioned John Taaffe's History of the Order of Malta (1852); J. M. Kemble's Historical introduction to The Knights Hospitallers in England (Camden Soc., London, 1857); W. Porter, Hist. of the Knights of Malta (2 vols. 1858, new ed. 1883); Bedford and Holbeche, The Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem (1902), for the modern order.

 (W. A. P.) 


ST JOHNS, the capital of Newfoundland, situated on the east coast of the island, in the peninsula of Avalon, in 47° 33' 54” N., and 52° 40' 18” W. It is the most easterly city of America, only 1700 m. from Queenstown in Ireland, and 2030 from Liverpool. It stands on rising ground on the north side of a land-locked harbour, which opens suddenly in the lofty iron-bound coast. The entrance, known as The Narrows, guarded by Signal Hill (520 ft.) and South Side Hill (620 ft.), is about 1400 ft. wide, narrowing to 600 ft. between Pancake and Chain Rocks. At the termination of the Narrows the harbour trends suddenly to the west, thus completely shutting out the ocean swell. Vessels of the largest tonnage can enter at all periods of the tide. There is good wharf accommodation and a well-equipped dry dock. St Johns practically monopolizes the commerce of the island (see Newfoundland), being the centre of the cod, seal and whale fisheries. The chief industries are connected with the fitting out of the fishing vessels, or with the disposal and manufacture of their catch. Steamship lines run to Liverpool, New York, Halifax (N.S.) and Saint Pierre. Nearly all the commerce of the island is sea-borne, and well-equipped steamers connect St Johns with the numerous bays and outports. It is the eastern terminus of the government railway across the island to Port-aux-Basques, whence there is steamer connexion with the mainland at Sydney.

The finest buildings in the city are the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals. Education is controlled by the various religious bodies; many of the young men complete their studies in Canada or Great Britain. St Johns is not an incorporated town. A municipal council was abolished after having largely increased the debt of the city, and it is now governed by commissioners appointed by the governor in council.

St Johns was first settled by Devonshire fishermen early in the 16th century. It was twice sacked by the French, and captured by them in the Seven Years' War (1762), but recaptured in the same year, since when it has remained in British possession. Both in the War of American Independence and in that of 1812 it was the headquarters of the British fleet, and at one time the western end of the harbour was filled up with American prizes. The old city, built entirely of wood, was twice destroyed by fire (1816–1817 and 1846). Half of it was again swept away in 1892, but new and more substantial buildings have been erected.

The population, chiefly of the Roman Catholic faith and of Irish descent, increases slowly. In 1901 the electoral district of St Johns contained 39,994 inhabitants, of whom 30,486 were within the limits of the city.


ST JOHNS, a town and port of entry of Quebec, Canada, and capital of St Johns county, 27 m. S.E. of Montreal by rail, on the river Richelieu and at the head of the Chambly canal. Pop. (1901) 4030. A large export trade in lumber, grain and farm produce is carried on, and its mills and factories produce flour, silk, pottery, hats, &c. Three railways, the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific and Central Vermont, enter St Johns. On the opposite bank of the river is the flourishing town of St Jean d'Ibe1ville (usually known simply as Ibervi1le), connected with St Johns by several bridges.


SAINT JOHNSBURY, a township and the county-seat of Caledonia. county, Vermont, U.S.A., on the Passumpsic river, about 34 m. E.N.E. of Montpelier. Pop. (1890) 6567; (1900) 7010; (1910) 8098; of the village of the same name (1900) 5666 (1309 foreign-born); (1910) 6693. Area. of the township, about 47 sq. m. Saint Johnsbury is served by the Boston & Maine and the Saint Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railways. The farms of the township are devoted largely to dairying. In the village are a Y.M.C.A. building (1885); the Saint Johnsbury Awdemy (1842); the Saint Johnsbury Athenaeum (1871), with a library (about 18,000 volumes in 1909) and an art gallery; the Fairbanks Museum of Natural Science (1891), founded by Colonel Franklin Fairbanks; St Johnsbury Hospital (1895); Brightlook Hospital (1899, private); the large scales mannufactory of the E. & T. Fairbanks Company (see Fairbanks, Erastus), and also manufactories of agricultural implements, steam hammers, granite work, furniture and carriages. There are two systems of water-works, one being owned by the village. The township of Saint Johnsbury was granted to Dr Jonathan Arnold (1741–1793) and associates in 1786; in the same year a settlement was established and the place was named in honour of Jean Hector Saint John de Crevecoeur (1731–1813), who wrote Letters of an American Farmer (1782), a glowing description of America, which brought thither many immigrants, and who introduced potato planting into France. The township government was organized in 1790, and the village was incorporated in 1853.


ST JOHN'S WORT, in botany, the general name for species of Hypericum, especially H. perforalum, small shrubby plants with slender stems, sessile opposite leaves which are often dotted with pellucid glands, and showy yellow flowers. H. Androsaenium is Tutsan (Fr. tout saine), so called from its healing properties. H. calycinum (Rose of Sharon), a creeping plant with large almost solitary flowers 3 to 4 in. across, is a south-east European plant which has become naturalized in Britain in various places in hedges and thickets.


SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Berrien county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Saint Joseph river, near the S.W. corner of the state. Pop. (1890) 3733; (1900) 5155, of 'whom 1183 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 5936. It is served by the Michigan Central and the Pere Marquette railways, by electric interurban railway to South Bend, Indiana, and by a steamboat line to Chicago. Benton Harbor, about 1 m. S.W., with which St Joseph is connected by electric line, is a terminus of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railway. The U.S. government has deepened the harbour channel to 18 ft.; and the St Joseph river has been made navigable for vessels drawing 3 ft. from St Joseph to Berrien Springs (2 5 m. by river). A canal, 1 m. long, extends from the upper part of the harbour to Benton Harbor. St Joseph has a public library. The city is a summer and health resort; it has mineral (saline sulphur) springs and a large mineral-water bath house. The general offices and the hospital (1902) of the Michigan Children's Home Society are here. The city has an important trade Ill] fruit, and has various manufactures, including paper, fruit packages, baskets, motor boats, gasolene launches, automobile supplies, hosiery and knit goods, air guns and sashes and blinds. The municipality owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting plant. . On or near the site of the present city La Salle built in 1679 Fort Miami. In the same county, on or near the site of the present city of Niles (pop. 1910, 5156), French Jesuits established an Indian mission in 1690, and the French government in 1697 erected Fort St Joseph, which was captured from the English by the Indians in 1763, and in 1781 was seized by a Spanish party from St Louis. Fort Miami has often been confused with this Fort St Joseph, 60 m. farther up the river. St Joseph was settled in 1829, incorporated as a village in 1836 and first chartered as a city in 1891.


SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Buchanan county, Missouri, U.S.A., and a port of entry, situated in the north-western corner of the state on the E. bank of the Missouri river. It is the third in size among the cities of the state. Pop. (1880) 32,431; (1890) 52,324; (1900) 102,979, Of whom 8424 were foreign-born and 6260 were negroes; (1910 census) 77,403. St Joseph is a transportation centre of great importance. It is served by six railways, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri Pacino, and the St Joseph & Grand Island; in addition there are two terminal railways. A steel bridge across the Missouri (built in 1872; rebuilt in 1906) connects the city with Elwood, Kansas (pop. 1910, 636), and is used by two railways. The city is laid out on hills above the bluffs of the river. The site was completely remade, however (especially in 1866–1873), and the entire business portion has been much graded down. The principal public buildings are the Federal building, the court house, an auditorium seating 7000, a Union Station and a