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20
ST JUNIEN—SAINT-JUST

public library. There are six city parks, of which the largest are Krug Park (30 acres) and Bartlett Park (20 acres). The State Hospital (No. 2) for the Insane(opened 1874) is immediately E. of St Joseph; in the city are the Ensworth, St Joseph and Woodson hospitals, a Memorial Home for needy old people and the Home for Little Wanderers. South St Joseph, a manufacturing suburb, has a library and so has the northern part of the city. The great stock-yards of South St Joseph are sights of great interest. In 1909 the state legislature provided for a commission form of government which took effect in April 1910; a council of five, elected by the city at large, has only legislative powers; the mayor appoints members of a utilities commission, a park commission and a board of public works, and all officers except the city auditor and treasurer; and the charter provides for the initiative, the referendum and the recall. The city maintains a workhouse (1882), also two market houses, and owns and manages an electric-lighting plant. Natural gas is also furnished to the city from oil-fields in Kansas. A private company owns the water-works, first built in 1879 and since greatly improved. The water is drawn from the Missouri, 3 m. above the city, and is pumped thence into reservoirs and settling basins. Beside the local trade of a rich surrounding farming country, the railway facilities of St Joseph have enabled it to build up a great jobbing trade (especially in dry goods), and this is still the greatest economic interest of the city. Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade. In 1900 the manufactured product of the city and its immediate suburbs was valued at $31,690,736, of which $19,009,332 were credited to slaughtering and packing. In the decade of 1890–1900 the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits. In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.

In 1826 Joseph Robidoux, a French half-breed trader, established a trading post on the site of St Joseph. Following the purchase from the Indians of the country, now known as the Platte Purchase, in 1836, a settlement grew up about this trading post, and in 1843 Robidoux laid out a town here and named it St Joseph in honour of his patron saint. St Joseph became the county-seat in 1846, and in 1851 was first chartered as a city. It early became a trading centre of importance, well known as an outfitting point for miners and other emigrants to the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific coast. During the Civil War it was held continuously by the Unionists, but local sentiment was bitterly divided. After the war a rapid development began. In 1885 St Joseph became a city of the second class. Under the state constitution of 1875 it has had the right, since attaining a population of 100,000, to form a charter for itself. In September 1909, at a special election, it adopted the commission charter described above.


ST JUNIEN, a town of west-central France in the department of Haute-Vienne, on the right bank of the Vienne, 26 m. W. by N. of Limoges on the railway from Limoges to Angouléme. Pop. (1906) town, 8484; commune, 11,400. The 12th century collegiate church, a fine example of the Romanesque style of Limousin, contains a richly sculptured tomb of St Junien, the hermit of the 6th century from whom the town takes its name. Another interesting building is the Gothic chapel of Notre-Dame, with three naves, rebuilt by Louis XI., standing close to a medieval bridge over the Vienne, The town, which ranks second in the department in population and industry, is noted for leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves and straw paper.


SAINT-JUST, ANTOINE LOUIS LEON DE RICHEBOURG DE (1767–1794), French revolutionary leader, was born at Decize in the Nivernais on the 25th of August 1767. At the outbreak of the Revolution, intoxicated with republican ideas, he threw himself with enthusiasm into politics, was elected an officer in the National Guard of the Aisne, and by fraud-he being yet under age-admitted as a member of the electoral assembly of his district. Early in 1789 he had published twenty cantos of licentious verse, in the fashion of the time, under the title of Organ! au Vatican. Henceforward, however, he assumed a stoical demeanour, which, united to a policy tyrannical and pitilessly thorough, became the characteristic of his life. He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, Saint-Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the National Convention, where he made his first speech on the condemnation of Louis XVI.-gloomy, fanatical, remorseless in tone-on the 13th of November 1792. In the Convention, in the lacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the “ St John of the Messiah of the People.” His appointment as a member of the Committee of Public Safety placed him at the centre of the political fever-heat. In the name of this committee he was charged with the drawing up of reports to the Convention upon the absorbing themes of the overthrow of the party of the Gironde (report of the 8th of July 1793), of the Hérbertists, and finally, of that denunciation of Danton which consigned him and his followers to the guillotine. What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-]ust's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and-with the shadow of Robespierre behind him-they served their turn. Camille Desmoulins, in jest and mockery, said of Saint- lust-the youth with the beautiful countenance and the long fair locks“ He carries his head like a Holy Sacrament.” “And I, ” savagely replied Saint-]ust, “ will make him carry his like a Saint Denis.” The threat was not vain: Desmoulins accompanied Danton to the scaffold. The same ferocious inflexibility animated Saint-Iust with reference to the external policy of France. He proposed that the National Convention should itself, through its committees, direct all military movements and all branches of the government (report of the 10th of October 1793). This was agreed to, and Saint-Just was dispatched to Strassburg, in company with another deputy, to superintend the military operations. It was suspected that the enemy without was being aided by treason within. Saint-]ust's remedy was direct and terrible: he followed his experience in Paris, “ organized the Terror, ” and soon the heads of all suspects sent to Paris were falling under the guillotine. But there were no executions at Strassburg, and Saint- lust repressed the excesses of ]. G. Schneider (q.°v.), who as public prosecutor to the revolutionary tribunal of the Lower Rhine had ruthlessly applied the Terror in Alsace. Schneider was sent to Paris and guillotined. The conspiracy was defeated, and the armies of the Rhine and Moselle having been inspirited by success-Saint- Tust himself taking a fearless part in the actual fighting-and having effected a junction, the frontier was delivered and Germany invaded. On his return Saint-]ust was made president of the Convention. Later, with the army of the North, he placed before the generals the dilemma of victory over the enemies of France or trial by the dreaded revolutionary tribunal; and before .the eyes of the army itself he organized a force specially charged with the slaughter of those who should seek refuge by flight. Success again crowned his efforts, and Belgium was gained for France (May, 1794). Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloornier than ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint- lust to the capital. Saint# ]ust proposed a dictatorship as the only remedy for the convulsions of society. At last, at the famous sitting of the 9th Thermidor, he ventured to present as the report of the committees of General Security and Public Safety a document expressing his own views, a sight of which, however, had been refused to the other members of committee on the previous evening. Then the storm broke. He was vehemently interrupted, and the sitting ended with an order for Robespierre's