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scHMIDT, K. voN—scHNEIDER, J. G.

in Leipzig, and in the following year became, with Gustav Freytag, joint owner of that periodical. In 1861 he removed to Berlin as editor-in-chief of the Berliner allgemeine Zeitung, and in 1878 was rewarded for the journalistic services rendered to the government, by a pension from the emperor William I. He died at Berlin on the 27th of March 1886.

Julian Schmidt's principal contributions to literal? history are Geschichte der Romantik im Zeitalter der Revolution un Restauration (1848); Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur im 19. Jahrhundert (1853); Geschichte des geistigen Lebens in Deutschland 'von Leibniz bis auf Lessings Tod (1861-1863). These works subsequently appeared as Geschichte der deutschen Literatur 'von Leibniz bis auf unsere Zeit (4 vols., 1886-1896); Schmidt also wrote a Geschichte der franzosischen Literatur seit der Revolution (1857), and a biography of Schiller (1859).

SCHMIDT, KARL VON (1817-187 5), Prussian cavalry general, was born at Schwedt on the Oder, on the 12th of January 1817, and entered the 4th Ulans as a second lieutenant in 1834. His long regimental service was varied by staff service and instructional work, and in the mobilization of 1859 he had the command of a landwehr cavalry regiment. In 1863 he was made colonel of the 4th C uirassiers, which he commanded in the, for the cavalry arm, uneventful campaigns of 1864 and 1866. He then commanded a newly raised regiment of Schleswig-Holstein troops, the 16th Hussars, but at the outbreak of the F ranco-German War he was still an obscure and perhaps a mistrusted officer, though his grasp of every detail of cavalry work was admitted. But an opportunity for distinction was grasped in the cavalry fighting around Mars-1a-Tour (Aug. 16), in which he temporarily led a brigade and was severely wounded. He was soon promoted major-general and succeeded to the temporary command of his division on the disablement of its leader. In this post he did brilliant work in the campaign on the Loire, and even in the winter operations towards Le Mans, and earned a reputation second to none amongst the officers and men of his arm. After the war he took a leading part in the reorganization of the Prussian cavalry, which in ten years raised its efficiency to a point far beyond that of any other cavalry in Europe. In 1875, though his health was failing, he refused to give up the conduct of certain important cavalry manoeuvres with which he had been entrusted. But a few days of heavy work in the field brought on a fatal illness, and he died at Danzig on the 25th of August 1875. In 1889 the 4th Ulans, in which his regimental service was almost entirely spent, were given the name “ Von Schmidt.”

His drill and manoeuvre instructions were codified and published after his death by his staff officer, Captain von Vollard Bockelberg, who was authorized by Prince Frederick Charles to do so. An English translation, Instructions for Cavalry, has been published by the War Oliice. Yon Schmidt himself wrote a pamphlet, Auch ein Wort uber die Ausbildung der Cavallerie (1862). The original German edition of the Instructions for Cavalry is prefaced by a memoir of Von Schm1dt's life and services, written by Major Kaehler.

SCHMIDT, WILHELM ADOLF (1812-1887), German historian, was born in Berlin on the 26th of September 1812. He became in 1851 professor of history at Zurich, and nine years later professor at Jena, where he died on the 10th of April 1887. He was a member of the Frankfort parliament in 1848, and of the German Reichstag from 1874 to 1876. His historical Works deal mainly with modern German history, and the most important of them are:-

Preussens deutsche Politik (Berlin, 1850, and other editions); Geschichte der preussisch-deutschen Unionsbestrebungen (Berlin, 1851); Zeitgenéssische Geschichten (Berlin, 1859); Elsass und Lothringen (Leipzig, 1859 and 1870); and Geschichte der deutschen Verfassungsfrage wahrend der Befreiungskriege und des Wiener Kongresses (Stuttgart, 1890), which was published after his death by A. Stern. Schmidt also wrote: Tableaux de la Revolution Française publiés sur les papiers inédits du département de la police secrete de Paris (Leipzig, 1867-1870); Pariser Zustande wdhrend der Revolutionszeit (Jena, 1874-1876), translated 'into French by P. Viollet (Paris, 1880-1885); Das Perikleische Zeitalter (Jena, 1877-1879); Handbuch der griechirchen Chronologie (Jena, 1888); and Abhandlungen zur alten Geschichte (Leipzig, 1888).

See . Landwehr, Zur Erinnerung an Adolf Schmidt (Berlin, 1887).

SCHMOLLER, GUSTAV (1838-), German political economist, was born at Heilbronn on the 24th of June 1838. He studied political science, philosophy and history at the university of Tübingen from 18 57 to 1861, when he obtained an appointment at the Württemberg Statistical Department. In 1864 Schmoller became extraordinary-and in the following year, ordinary professor of political economy and science at Halle, was transferred in a like capacity to Strasburg in 1872 and finally in 1882 to Berlin. In 1884 he was admitted a member of the Prussian Staatsrath, in 1887 a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and in 1899 was called to the Prussian Herrenhaus (Upper Chamber) as representative of the university of Berlin. Schmoller is famous for his researches in the field of the history of political economy and is one of the founders of the Verein fur Social Politik (Social Political Society).

Among his numerous scientific works must be specially mentioned: Der Zranzésiche Handelsvertrag und seine Gegner (1862); Zur Qesc ichte des deutschen Kleingewerbes im Igten Jahrhundert (1869); Uber einige Grundfragen des Rechts und der Volkswirtschaft (1875). In late years Schmoller concentrated his attention more upon the history of Prussian administration, and besides editing the Jahrbuch fur preussische Geschichte und Landeskunde, published the result of his labours in this department in the Umrisse und Untersuchurfigen zur Verfassungs-, Verwaltungs- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, beson ers des preussischen Staates, im I7ten und I8ten Jahrhundert (1898). (Fo; an estimate of' Schmoller's work cf. Stampfer, Gustav Schmoller 1901 .

SCHNEEBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, in the Erzgebirge, 14 m. S.E. from Zwickau by rail. Pop. (1905) 9034. It contains a handsome Gothic parish church, one of the largest ecclesiastical buildings i n Saxony, dedicated to St Wolfgang, with an altar-piece by Lucas Cranach the elder, and numerous tombs; a gymnasium; a school of lace-making and a hospital. Hand-made lace and silver mining, formerly its two most important industries, have greatly declined. The first has been almost entirely superseded by machine-made goods, while the second appears to have languished owing to exhaustion of the mines. Cobalt, bismuth and nickel are worked and yield satisfactory results, and machine-made lace, ernbroidery, porcelain, corsets, shoes and colours are among the chief of its other industrial products. Schneeberg is also noted for a snuii made of aromatic herbs, which commands a ready sale in the district.

See Lehmann, Chrunik von Schneeberg (Schneeberg, 1837-1840).

SCHNEEKOPPE, a mountain of Germany, on the Silesian Bohemian frontier, the highest peak (5100 ft.) of the Riesengebirge, situated immediately above the town of Schmiedeberg, 8 m. S. from Hirschberg. From the crest, which is about 5o yds; sq. and across which runs the frontier line between Silesia and Bohemia, a magnificent view is obtained across the Oder plain to Breslau on the north and over Bohemia to the southwest. lust below the ridge, on the Prussian side, lies the chapel of St Lawrence, which was used as a hospice for travellers from 1824 to 1850, when a new hostel was erected. Since 1900 a meteorological station has been established here. See Zetzmann, Panorama von der Sohneelzoppe (Berlin, 1903).

SCHNEIDEMÜHL (Polish Pila), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Posen, situated on t-he Ciiddow, 60 m. N. of Posen and 14 5 m. N.E. of Berlin on the main line to Kanigsberg, and at the junction of lines to Stargard and Thorn. Pop. (IQO 5), 21,624. It has five churches, a classical school and a Roman Catholic teachers' seminary. Schneidemiihl carries on a trade in wood, grain and potatoes, and possesses an iron foundry, several glass works and machine-shops, and -other industrial establishments. Considerable damage was done to the town in 189 3 by a violent overflow of water from a deep artesian well.


classical scholar and naturalist, was born at Kollmen in Saxony on the 18th of January 17 50. In 1774, on the recommendation of Heyne, he became secretary to the famous Strassburg scholar, R. F. Brunck, and in 1811 professor of ancient languages and eloquence at. Breslau (chief librarian, 1816) where he died on the 12th of January 1822. Of his numerous works the most important was his Kritisches griechisch-deutsche.: H andworterbuch (1797~1798), the first independent work of the kind since Stephanus"s Thesaurus, and the basis of F. Passow's and all succeeding Greek lexicons. A special improvement was the