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SCHÜRER, EMIL (1844-1910), German Protestant theologian, was born at Augsburg on the 2nd of May 1844. After studying at Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg from 1862 to 1866, he became in 1873 professor extraordinarius at Leipzig and eventually (1895) professor ordinarius at Göttingen. In 1876 he founded and edited the Theologische Literaturzeitung, and from 1881 to 1910 he edited it with Adolf Harnack. His elaborate work on the history of the Jews in the time of Christ (Geschichte des jüdischen Volks im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 2 vols., 1886-1890; new ed. in 3 vols., 1901-1902; Eng. trans., 1890 ff.) made him in Great Britain and America one of the best known of modern German scholars. He died after a long illness on the 30th of April 1910.

His other works include: Schleiermacher's Religionsbegriff (1868); Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte (1874; an earlier form of Gesch. des jüd. Volks), and Die Gemeindeverfassung der Juden in Rom (1879). See A. Harnack in the Theologische Literaturzeitung for May 14, 1910.

SCHURMAN, JACOB GOULD (1854-), American educationist, was born at Freetown, Prince Edward Island, on the 22nd of May 1854, of Dutch descent, his Loyalist ancestors having left New York in 1784. While a student at Acadia College, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, in 1875, he won the Canadian Gilchrist scholarship in the University of London, from which he received the degree of B.A. in 1877 and that of M.A. in 1878, and in 1877-1880 studied in Paris, Edinburgh and (as Hibbert Fellow) in Heidelberg, Berlin and Göttingen. He was professor of English literature, political economy and psychology at Acadia College in 1880-1882, of metaphysics and English literature at Dalhousie College, Halifax, N.S., in 1882-1886, and of philosophy (Sage professor) at Cornell University in 1886-1892, being Dean of the Sage School of Philosophy in 1891-1892. In 1892 he became president of Cornell University. He was chairman of the First United States Philippine Commission in 1899, and wrote (besides a part of the official report to Congress) Philippine Affairs — A Retrospect and an Outlook (1902). With J. E. Creighton and James Seth he founded in 1892 The Philosophical Review. He also wrote Kantian Ethics and the Ethics of Evolution (1881); The Ethical Import of Darwinism (1888); Belief in God (1890), and Agnosticism and Religion (1896).

SCHURZ, CARL (1829-1906), German American statesman and reformer, was born in Liblar, near Cologne, on the 2nd of March 1829, the son of a school-teacher. He studied in the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne in 1840-1846, and then entered the University of Bonn, where he became a revolutionary, partly through his friendship with Gottfried Kinkel, professor of literature and art-history. He assisted Kinkel in editing the Bonner Zeitung, and on the outbreak of the Revolution of 1848 took the field, but when Rastatt surrendered he escaped to Zurich. In 1850 he returned secretly to Germany, rescued Kinkel from the prison at Spandau and helped him to escape to Scotland. Schurz went to Paris, but the police forced him to leave France on the eve of the coup d'état, and until August 1852 he lived in London, making his living by teaching German. He married in July 1852 and removed to America, living for a time in Philadelphia.

In 1856 after a year in Europe he settled in Watertown, Wisconsin, and immediately became prominent in the Republican party of that state. In 1857 he was an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant-governor on the Republican ticket. In the Illinois campaign of the next year between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas he took part as a speaker; and later in 1858 he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar and began to practise law in Milwaukee. In the state campaign of 1859 he made a speech attacking the Fugitive Slave Law and arguing for state's rights and thus injured his political standing in Wisconsin; and in April he delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston, an oration on “True Americanism,” which coming from an alien was intended to clear the Republican party of the charge of “nativism.” The Germans of Wisconsin unsuccessfully urged his nomination for governor by the Republican party in 1859. In the Republican National Convention of 1860 Schurz was chairman of the delegation from Wisconsin, which voted for W. H. Seward; he was on the committee which drew up the platform and served on the committee which announced his nomination to Abraham Lincoln. In spite of Secretary Seward's objection, grounded on Schurz's European record as a revolutionary, Lincoln sent him in 1861 as minister to Spain. He returned to America in January 1862, resigned his post, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in April, and in June took command of a division under Frémont, and then in Sigel's corps, with which he took part in the second battle of Bull Run. He was promoted major-general of volunteers on the 14th of March and was a division commander at Chancellorsville of the Eleventh Corps, under General O. O. Howard, with whom he later had a bitter controversy over this battle. He was at Gettysburg and at Chattanooga. After the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were united as the Twentieth he was put in command of a Corps of Instruction at Nashville, and saw no more active service except in the last months of the war when he was with Sherman's army in North Carolina. He resigned from the army immediately after the close of hostilities. In the summer of 1865 President Johnson sent him through the South to study conditions; the President quarrelled with Schurz because the latter approved General H. W. Slocum's order forbidding the organization of militia in Mississippi, and Schurz's valuable report (afterwards published as an executive document), suggesting the readmission of the states with complete rights and the investigation of the need of further legislation by a Congressional committee, was not heeded by the President. In 1866-1867 he was chief editor of the Detroit Post and then became editor and joint proprietor with Emil Praetorius (1827-1905) of the Westliche Post of St Louis. In the winter of 1867-1868 he travelled in Germany — the account of his interview with Bismarck is one of the most interesting chapters of his Reminiscences. He spoke against “repudiation” and for “honest money” during the Presidential campaign of 1868.

In 1869-1875 he was United States senator from Missouri, and made a great reputation (especially in 1873-1874) by his speeches on financial subjects. During this period he broke with the administration: he started the Liberal Republican movement in Missouri in 1870 which elected B. Gratz Brown governor; and in 1872 he presided over the Liberal Republican convention which nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency (Schurz's own choice was Charles Francis Adams or Lyman Trumbull) and which did not in its platform represent Schurz's views on the tariff, or Greeley's. He opposed Grant's Santo Domingo policy — after Fessenden's death Schurz was a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, — his Southern policy, and the government's selling arms and making cartridges for the French army in the Franco-Prussian War. But in 1875 he campaigned for Hayes, as the representative of sound money, in the Ohio gubernatorial campaign. In 1876 he supported Hayes in the contest for the presidency, and Hayes made him in 1877 his secretary of the interior, and followed much of his advice in other cabinet appointments and in his inaugural address. In this department Schurz put in force his theories in regard to merit in the Civil Service, permitting no removals except for cause, and requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships; he reformed the Indian Bureau and successfully opposed a bill transferring it to the War Department; and he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation. Upon his retirement in 1881 he removed to New York City, and from the summer of 1881 to the autumn of 1883 was editor-in-chief and one of theproprietors of the New York Evening Post. In 1884 he was a leader in the Independent (or Mugwump) movement against the nomination of James G. Blaine for the presidency and for the election of Grover Cleveland. From 1888 to 1892 he was general American representative of the Hamburg American Steamship Company. In 1892 he succeeded George William Curtis as president of the National Civil Service Reform League and held this office until 1901. He succeeded Curtis as editorial writer for Harper's Weekly in 1892-1898, in which he did much for civil service reform and for Cleveland's nomination and election