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in 1892. In 1895 he spoke for the Fusion anti-Tammany ticket in New York City. He opposed W. J. Bryan for the presidency in 1896, speaking for sound money and not under the auspices of the Republican party; in 1900 on the anti-imperialism issue he supported Bryan; and in 1904 he supported A. B. Parker, the Democratic candidate. He died in New York City on the 14th of May 1906.

Schurz published a volume of Speeches (18865); Henry Clay (1887) in the “American Statesmen” series, a standard biography; Abraham Lincoln (1889), a remarkable essay; and Reminiscences New York, 3 vols., 1907-1908), in the third volume of which is a sketch of his life and public services from 1869 to 1906 by Frederic Bancroft and William A. Dunning. During the last twenty years of his life Schurz was perhaps the most prominent Independent in American politics, and even more notable than his great abilities was his devotion to his high principles. He was the first German-born American to enter the United States Senate, and was an able debater; and his command of the English language, written and spoken, was remarkable. A sense of humour added much to his campaign speeches.

SCHÜTZENBERGER, PAUL (1829-1897), French chemist, was born on the 23rd of December 1829 at Strassburg, where his father Georges Frédéric Schiitzenberger (1779-1859) was professor of law, and his uncle Charles Schiitzenberger (1809-1881) professor of chemical medicine. He was intended for a medical career and graduated M.D. at Strassburg in 1855, but his interests lay in physical and chemical science. In 1853 he went to Paris as préparateur to J. F. Persoz (1805-1868), professor of chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. A year later he was entrusted with a course of chemical instruction at Miilhausen, and he remained in that town till 1865 as professor at the École Supérieure des Sciences. He then returned to Paris as assistant to A. V. Balard at the College de France, in 1876 he succeeded that chemist in the chair of chemistry, and in 1882 he became directing professor at the municipal École de Physique et de Chimie. The two latter chairs helheld together until his death, which happened on the 26th of June 1897 at Mézy, Seine et Oise. During the period he spent at Miilhausen, Schiitzenberger paid special attention to industrial chemistry, particularly in connexion with colouring matters, but he also worked at general and biological chemistry which subsequently occupied the greater part of his time. He is known for a long series of researches on the constitution of alkaloids and of the albuminoid bodies, and for the preparation of several new series of platinum compounds and of hypo sulphurous acid, H2S2O4. Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic weights within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.

His publications include Chimie applique ri sla physiologic et 12 la pathologic animale (1863); Trailé des rnalieres color antes (1867); Les Fermentations (1875), which was translated into German, Italian and English; and an excellent Traité de chimie générale in seven volumes (1880-1894).

SCHUYLER, PHILIP JOHN (1733-1804), American soldier, was born at Albany, New York, on the 11th of November 1733. The Schuyler family was established in the New World by Philip Pieterse Schuyler (d. 1683), who migrated from Amsterdam in 1650, and whose son, Peter (1657-1724), was the first mayor of Albany and chairman of the board of Indian commissioners of the province. The family was one of the wealthiest and most influential in the colony and was closely related by marriage to the Van Rensselaers, Van Cortlandts and other representatives of the old Dutch aristocracy. Philip Schuyler served in the Provincial Army during the Seven Years' War, first as captain and later as deputy-commissary with the rank of major, taking part in the battles of Lake George (1755), Oswego River (1756), Ticonderoga (1758) and Fort Frontenac (1758). From 1768 to 1775 he represented Albany in the New York Assembly, and he was closely associated with the Livingston family in the leadership of the Presbyterian or Whig party. He was a delegate to the second Continental Congress in May 177 5, and on the 19th of June was chosen one of the four major-generals in the Continental service. Placed in command of the northern department of New York, he established headquarters at Albany, and made preparations for an invasion of Canada. Soon after the expedition started he was prostrated by rheumatic gout, and the actual command devolved upon General Richard Montgomery. Schuyler returned to Ticonderoga and later to Albany, where he spent the winter of 1775-1776 in collecting and forwarding supplies to Canada and in suppressing the Loyalists and their Indian allies in the Mohawk Valley. On the death of Montgomery and the failure to take Quebec the army retreated to Crown Point, and its commander, General John Sullivan, was superseded by General Horatio Gates. Gates claimed precedence over Schuyler and, on failing to secure recognition, intrigued to bring about Schuyle1's dismissal. The controversy was taken into Congress. The necessary withdrawal of the army from Crown Point in 1776 and the evacuation of Ticonderoga in 1777 were magnified by Schuyler's enemies into a retrograde movement, and, on the 19th of August 1777, he was superseded. A court martial appointed in 1778 acquitted him on every charge. He resigned from the army in April 1779. He was a delegate from New York to the Continental Congress in 1779-1781, and state senator in 1781-1784, 178671790 and 1792-1797. In 1788 he joined his son-in-law Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and others in leading the movement for the ratification by New York of the Federal constitution. He served in the United States Senate as a Federalist from 1790 to 1791 and was again elected in 1797, but resigned in January 1798 on account of ill health. He was also active for many years as Indian commissioner and surveyor-general and helped to settle the New York boundary disputes with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. He prepared plans for the construction of a'canal between the Hudson river and Lake Champlain before 1776, and, in 1792-1796, carried to a successful conclusion a more pretentious scheme for connecting the Hudson with Lake Ontario by way of the Mohawk, Oneida Lake and the Onondaga river. He died in Albany on the 18th of November 1804.

Sep Bayard Tuckerman, Life of General Philip Schuyler (New York, 1903

Other prominent members of the family were: Montgomery Schuyler (1814-1896) and his cousin Anthony (1816-1896), Protestant' Episcopal clergymen; George Washington (1810-1888), treasurer of New York State in 1863-1865 and of Cornell University in 1868-1874 and author of Colonial New York: Philip Schuyler and his Family (2 Vols., 188 5); his son Eugene (1840-1890), who was long in the consular and diplomatic service of the United States, and who translated some of the novels of Tourgeniev and Tolstoi and wrote Peter the Great (1884) and American Diplomacy and lhe Furlherance of Commerce (1886); and Montgomery (b. 1843), a son of Anthony, and a. journalist and writer on architecture.

SCHWABACH, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, 9 m. by rail S. of Nuremberg. Pop. (1905) 10,342. It has the interesting Evangelical church of St John, built in the 15th century, with carvings by Veit Stoss, paintings by Wohlgemut, Martin Schon and others, and a ciborium by Adam Krait; a fountain, the Schone Brunnen, and several schools. Schwabach is the chief seat of the needle manufacture in Bavaria; its other industries include gold and silver wire Work, brewing and the making of soap and earthenware. Schwabach was purchased in 1364 by the burgrave of Nuremberg.

See Petzoldt, Chronik der Stadt Schwabach (Schwabach, 1854).

SCHWABE, SAMUEL HEINRICH (1789–1875), German astronomer, was born on the 25th of October 1789 at Dessau, where he died on the 11th of April 1875. At first an apothecary, he turned his attention to astronomy, and in 1826 commenced his observations on sun-spots. In 1843 he made the suggestion of a probable ten year period (i.e. that at every tenth year the number of spots reached a maximum), but it met with scant approval, and he continued his observations, which were