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morally hostile, and Schwarzenberg gained some minor successes by skilful manoeuvres without a great battle; afterwards, under instructions from Napoleon, he remained for some months inactive at Pultusk. In 1813, when Austria, after many hesitations, took the side of the allies against Napoleon, Schwarzenberg, recently promoted to be field marshal, was appointed commander-in-chief of the allied Grand Army of Bohemia. As such he was the senior of the allied generals who conducted the campaign of 1813-1814 to the final victory before Paris and the overthrow of Napoleon. It is the fashion to accuse Schwarzenberg of timidity and over-caution, and his operations can easily be made to appear in that colour when contrasted with those of his principal subordinate, the fiery Blücher, but critics often forget that Schwarzenberg was an Austrian general first of all, that his army was practically the whole force that Austria could put into the field in Central Europe, and was therefore not lightly to be risked, and that the motives of his pusillanimity should be sought in the political archives of Vienna rather than in the text-books of strategical theory. In any case his victory, however achieved, was as complete as Austria desired, and his rewards were many, the grand crosses of the Maria Theresa and of many foreign orders, an estate, the position of president of the Hofkriegsrath, and, as a specially remarkable honour, the right to bear the arms of Austria as an escutcheon of pretence. But shortly afterwards, having lost his sister Caroline, to whom he was deeply attached, he fell ill. A stroke of paralysis disabled him in 1817, and in 1820, when revisiting Leipzig, the scene of the Viilkerschlacht that he had directed seven years before, he was attacked by a second stroke. He died there on the 15th of October.

His eldest son, FRIEDRICH, PRINCE zU SCHWARZENBI-:RG (1800-1870), had an adventurous career as a soldier, and described his wanderings and campaigns in several interesting works, of which the best known is his Wanderungen eines Lanzknechles (1844-1845). He took part as an Austrian officer in the campaigns of Galicia 1846, Italy 1848 and Hungary 1848, and as an amateur in the French conquest of Algeria, the Carlist wars in Spain and the Swiss civil war of the Sonderbund. He became a major general in the Austrian army in 1849, and died after many years of well-filled leisure in 1870. The second son, KARL PHILIP? (d. 1858), was a Feldzeugmeister; the third, EDMUND LEOPOLD FRIEDRICH (1803-1873), a field marshal in the Austrian army. Of Schwarzenberg's nephews, Felix, the statesman, is separately noticed, and FRIEDRICH JOHANN Josnr COELESTIN (1809-1885) was a cardinal and a. prominent figure in papal and Austrian history.

See Prokesch-Osten, Denkwardigkeiten aus dem Leben des Feldf marschall's Ftirsten Schwarzenber Vienna 1 2 ° B r g (, 8 3), e ger, Das Ftirstenhaus Schwarzenberg (Vienna, 1866), and a memoir by the same hand in Strejleurk Ost. Mililzirzeitschrifl, 1863.

SCHWARZENBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, situated on the Schwarzwasser, 16 m. from Annaberg by rail. Pop. (1905) 4629. It has a handsome parish church, an old palace and some schools. It has some small industries and there are large iron-works in the vicinity.

SCHWECHAT, a market-town of Austria, in Lower Austria, 5 m. S.E. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 8241. Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I. with Sobieski in 1683, after the liberation of Vienna, is commemorated by an obelisk. The imperial troops defeated the Hungarian insurgents in a battle fought here in October 1848.

SCHWEDT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the left bank of the Oder, 13 m. N.E. from Angermiinde by rail. Pop. (1905) 9530. It is a. pleasant, well built town, with broad streets and shady avenues. There are three Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, a palace, built in 1580, and a gymnasium. The royal riding school was removed hence to Hanover in 1867. The .industries include the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, machinery, vinegar, soap and bricks, and there is a considerable trade by water in agricultural produce.

Schwedt is mentioned in chronicles as 1138, and became a town in 126 5. Towards the end of the 15th century it passed to Brandenburg, and, in 1684, after a great conflagration which laid it in ruins, was handsomely rebuilt by the electress Dorothea. The lordship of Schwedt was in the possession of the counts of Hohenstein from 1481 to 1609, when it passed to Brandenburg. In 1689 it was given to Philip William, a younger son of the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William, and he and his successors called themselves margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt. When this line became extinct in 1784 the lordship reverted to Prussia, being claimed both by the king as personal property and by the state. The matter was not settled until 1872, when it was assigned to the state.

Sex; Thomiif Geschichte der Stadt und Herrschaft Schwedt (Berlin, 1873

SCHWEGLER, ALBERT (1819-1857), German philosopher and theologian, was born at Michelbach in Württemberg on the 10th of February 1819, the son of a country pastor. He entered the university of Tübingen in 1836, and was one of the earliest pupils of F. C. Baur, under whose influence he devoted himself to church history. His first work was Der M onlanismus u. die chrislliche Kirche des zten J ahrhunderts (1841), in which he pointed out for the first time that Montanism was much more than an isolated outbreak of eccentric fanaticism in the early church, though he himself introduced fresh misconceptions by connecting it with Ebionitism as he conceived the latter. This work, with other essays, brought him into Conflict with the authorities of the church, in consequence of which he gave up theology as his professional study and chose that of philosophy. In 1843 he founded the Jahrbilcher der Gegenwart, and became Privazfdozent of philosophy and classical philology in Ttibingen university. In 1848 he was made professor éiitraordinarius of Roman literature and archaeology, and soon afterwards professor ordinaries of history. He died on the 5th of January 1857.

His principal theological work was Das naehapostolische Zeilalter (2 vols., 1846). It was this book which first put before the world, with Schwegler's characteristic boldness and clearness, the results of the critical labours of the earlier representatives of the new Tubingen school in.relation to the first development of Christianity. Schwegler published also an edition of the Clementine Homilies (1847), and of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History (1852); in philosophy Uberselzung und Erlduterimg der aristot. Metaphysik (4 vols., 1847-1848), his excellent Gesehichte der Philosophie im Umriss (1848, 14th ed. 1887; 10th edition of Eng. trans. by J. Hutchison Stirling, 1888), and a posthumous Geschichle der Griech. Philosophie (1859). In history he began a Romische Geschichte (vols. i.-iii., 185 -1858, 2nd ed. 1867-1872), which he brought down only to the laws of Licinius.

See Edward Zeller, Vortrdge, vol. ii. (1878), pp. 329-363; and the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie.

SCHWEIDNITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Weistritz, 28 m. S.W. of Breslau by rail. Pop. (1905) 30,540. The town has wide streets and contains several old churches, one of which, a Roman Catholic church, built in the 14th century, has a tower 330 ft. high. It has an old town hall, a theatre and several statues of eminent men. The surrounding country is fertile and highly cultivated, and the large quantities of flax and hemp there raised encourage an active weaving industry in the town. Beetroot for sugar, grain and fruit are also grown. The manufacture of woollens, linens, hosiery, furniture, gloves, paper, machinery and tools, carriages, nuts and screws, needles and other hardware goods is carried on. The beer of Schweidnitz has long been famous under the name of “ Schwarze Schops, ” and in the 16th century it was exported as far as Italy. Schweidnitz is the chief grain market of the district.

Schweidnitz, dating from about the 11th century, received civic rights in 1250. About 1278 it became the capital of a principality, with an area of about 1000 sq. m., which belonged to Bohemia from 1353 till 1741, when it passed into the possession of Prussia. The “ Polerei of Schweidnitz ” is the name givento the riotous revolt of, the town, in 1520-1522, against a royal edict depriving it of the right of coining its own money. One of