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SCHWARZENBERG—SCHWARZENBERG, PRINCE ZU

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1857. The diet consists of five representatives elected by the highest taxpayers, five by general election, and live nominated for life by the prince. The first ten members are elected for four years, which is also the financial period. There is a ministry with five departments for the prince's household, domestic affairs, finance, churches and schools, and justice. The budget for the years 1908-1911 estimates the income at £164,440 and the expenditure at the same. The state debt in 1909 was £167, Q']O. The troops of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen have been incorporated with the Prussian army by convention since 1867. The principality has one vote in the Reichstag and one in the federal council. The house of Schwarzburg is one of the oldest and noblest in Germany; and tradition traces its descent from Widukind and the kings of the Franks. Its historical ancestors were the counts of Kafernburg, from Whom the counts of Schwarzburg sprang about the beginning of the 13th century. The name Gunther became the distinctive name for the members of this house (corresponding to Heinrich in the Reuss family), the various Giinthers being at first distinguished by numbers and afterwards by prefixed names. Various subdivisions and collateral lines were formed, but by 1599 all were extinct but the present two. Count Giinther XL., who died in 1552, was the last common ancestor of both lines. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is the senior line, although its possessions are the smaller. In 1697 the count was raised to the dignity of imperial prince by the emperor Leopold I. The prince had to pay 7000 thalers to the elector of Saxony and 3500 to the duke of Saxe-Weimar, and numerous disputes arose in connexion with the superiorities thus indicated. In 1807 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen entered the Confederation of the Rhine and became a sovereign state. In 1816 it joined the German League, and redeemed with portions of its territory all rights of superiority claimed by Prussia. Its domestic government has gradually, though not very quickly, improved since that time-the oppressive game-laws in particular having been abolished. A treaty of mutual succession'was made between the two families in 1713. Prince Charles Giinther succeeded on the 17th of July 1880, his father having on account of eye disease renounced the throne in favour of his son. By a law, promulgated in 1896, Sizzo, prince of Leutenberg, was recognized as the heir presumptive to this principality and, by-treaty With Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, to that principality also.

See Apfelstedt, Heimatskunde des Fiirstentnms Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Sondersh., 1854-1857); lrmisch, Beitrdge zur schwarzburgischen Heimatsknnde (Sondersh., 1905-1906).


SCHWARZENBERG, a princely family of Franconian origin, established in Bavaria and Austria, and carrying its present name since 1437. It was raised to princely rank in 1670. 'Besides Karl Philipp (see below) and johann (1463-1528), a moralist and reformer who, as judge of the episcopal court at Bamberg, introduced a new code of evidence which amended the procedure then prevalent in Europe by securing for the accused a more impartial hearing, its best-known representative is Felix (1800-18 52), Karl Philipp's nephew, an important Austrian statesman.

After six years' service in the Austrian army Felix espoused a diplomatic career at the instance of Metternich, and underwent a period of probation (1824-1848) at various European courts, in the course of which he confirmed his aristocratic aversion to popular government, but was led to acknowledge that absolutism needs to be justified by efficiency of administration. In 1848 he took an active part in the war against Piedmont and the insurgents in Vienna. On Nov. 21st of the same year he was appointed head of a reactionary ministry. Himself a soldier, he aimed at the ultimate restoration of the absolute monarchy by means of the army. At first he temporized, and on the 27th of November a proclamation was issued stating the intention of the government to uphold constitutional principles, but at the same time maintaining its intention to keep the empire intact even at the cost of a separation from Germany. The removal of the Austrian parliament to Kremsier followed the abdication of the emperor Ferdinand, and on March 7th 1849 the proclamation of a centralized constitution for the whole Austro-Hungarian monarchy, after the Austrian victory at Kopolna had seemed to Schwarzenberg to have crushed the Magyar power. of resistance. This was followed by the declaration of Hungarian independence; and Schwarzenberg did not hesitate ultimately to call in the aid of Russia to put an end to the insurrection (November). This done, he was free to turn his whole attention to Germany. His refusal to incorporate only the German provinces of the monarchy in the proposed new German Empire had thrown the German parliament into the arms of Prussia. His object now was to restore the stains quo ante of the Confederation, with the old predominance of Austria. His success in this respect was partly due to exterior circumstances, notably the mistimed exaggerations of the German revolutionists, but largely to his diplomatic skill, unscrupulousness and iron tenacity of purpose with which the weakness of Frederick William IV. and his ministers was unable to cope. His triumph came with the restoration of the old federal diet in May 1850 and the signature of the convention of Olmtitz on the 29th of November of the same year (see GERMANY: History).

See Berger, Felix, Fiirst zu Schwarzenberg (Leipzig, 1853); A. Beer, Fiirst Schwarzenbergk Deutsche Polvltik bis zu den Dresdener Konferenzen (Historisches Taschenbuch, Leipzig, 1891). For Johann see W. Scheel, Johann, Freiherr von S. (Berlin, 1905).


SCHWARZENBERG, KARL PHILIPP, PRINCE ZU (1771-1820), Austrian field marshal, was born on the 15th of April 1771 at Vienna! He entered the imperial cavalry in 1788, fought in 1789 under Lacy and London against the Turks, distinguished himself by his bravery, and became major in 1792. In the French campaign of 1793 he served in the advanced guard of the army commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, and at Cateau Cambresis in 1794 his impetuous charge at the head of his regiment, vigorously supported by twleve British squadrons, broke a whole corps of the French, killed and wounded 3000 men, and brought off 32 of the enemy's guns. He was immediately decorated with the cross of the Maria Theresa order. After taking part in the battles of Amberg and Wtirzburg in 1796 he was raised to the rank of major-general, and in 1799 he was promoted lieutenant lield marshal. At the defeat of Hohenlinden in 1800 his promptitude and courage saved the right wing of the Austrian army from destruction, and he was afterwards entrusted by the archduke Charles with the command of the rearguard. In the war of 1805 he held command of a division under Mack, and when Ulm was surrounded by Napoleon in October he was one of the brave band of cavalry, under the archduke Ferdinand, which cut its way through the hostile lines. In the same year he was made a commander of the order of Maria Theresa and in 1809 he received the Golden Fleece. When in 1808, in view of a new war with France, Austria decided to send a special envoy to Russia, Schwarzenberg, who was persona grata at the court of St Petersburg, was selected. He returned, however, in time to take part in the battle of Wagram, and was soon afterwards promoted general of cavalry. After the peace of Vienna he was sent to Paris to negotiate the marriage between Napoleon and the archduchess Maria Louisa. The prince gave a ball in honour of the bride on the 1st of ]'uly 1810, which ended in the tragic death of many of the guests, including his own sister-in-law, in a fire. Napoleon held Schwarzenberg in great esteem, and it was at his request that the prince took command of the Austrian auxiliary corps in the Russian campaign of 1812. The part of the Austrians was well understood to be politically rather than

1 The family of Schwarzenberg, of which many members are known to history, was derived from Erkinger von Seinsheim (b. 1362), a distinguished soldier under the emperor Sigismund, who bought the lordship of Schwarzenberg in Franconia in 1420. Count Adolf von Schwarzenberg (1547-1600) was a renowned general of the em ire, whose sword, along with that of his descendant Prince Karl Philipp, is preserved in the arsenal of Vienna. He fought in the wars of religion, but was chiefly distinguished in the wars on the Eastern frontier against the Turks. He was killed in a mutiny of the soldiers at Papa in Hungary in 1600. Gaono Luowro, COUNT voN SCHWARZENBERG (1586-1646), was an Austrian statesman in the Thirty Years' War. JOHANN, FREIHERR VON SCHWARZENBERG UND l“'¥ OHEIiI1LANDSBERG (1463-1528), was a celebrated jurist and a friend of Luther.