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ST MARY'S LOCH—ST MICHAEL'S

called Girty's Town. Fort St Marys was built; in 1784 or 1785 by a detachment of General Anthony Wayne's troops, and in 1812 Ft. Barbee was erected at the instance of General W. H. Harrison by Colonel Joshua Barbee. During the War of 1812 the place was for some time the headquarters of General Harrison's army. St Marys was laid out as a town in 182 3, and became a city in 1903 under the general municipal code which came into effect in that year.


ST MARY'S LOCH, a fresh-water lake of Selkirkshire, Scotland. It lies in the high land towards the western border, and is visited from Selkirk (16 m. E. by N.) or Moffat (15 m. S.W.). It is 814 ft. above the sea, is from 80 to 90 ft. deep, 3 m. long, about 1 m. wide at its widest, and has a shore-line of 7½ m. A narrow isthmus divides its head from the small Loch of the Lowes (about 1 m. long), which is believed to have been once part of it, the difference of level being only 15 in. St Mary's is emptied by the Yarrow, and its principal feeder is Megget Water, a noted angling stream. It takes its name from St Mary's Kirk, the ruins of which lie near the northern shore. From the 13th century, when the church is first mentioned, till its destruction in 1557, it was variously known as the Forest Kirk (in which William Wallace was elected Warden of Scotland), St Mary's of Farmainishope, an old name of the adjoining lands of Kirkstead, St Mary of the Lowes, and the Kirk of Yarrow. It had been partly restored, but gradually fell into decay, its place being taken by the church of Yarrow farther down the vale. In the graveyard was buried John Grieve (1781-1836), the Edinburgh hatter, a poet of some capacity, patron of James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd. At the head of the lake is the celebrated inn opened by Tibbie Shiel (Mrs Richardson, d. 1878), which was visited by many distinguished men of letters.


ST MAUR-DES-FOSSÉS, a south-eastern suburb of Paris, on the right bank of the Marne, 7 m. from the centre of the city. Pop. (1906), 28,016. St Maur and the residential district surrounding it cover a peninsula formed by a loop in the Marne, the neck of which is crossed by the canal of St Maur. In the reign of Clovis II. the monastery of Les Fossés was founded; the amplification of the name came when the body of St Maurus was brought there by the monks of St Maur-sur-Loire. About the same time was inaugurated the pilgrimage of Notre-Dame des Miracles, which still takes place annually. In 1465 a treaty of peace, putting an end to the “ War of the Public Weal," was concluded between Louis XI. and his revolted barons at St Maur.


ST MAUR-SUR-LOIRE, a village of western France in the department of Maine-et-Loire on the Loire about 15 m. below Saumur. Here St Maurus towards the middle of the 6th century founded the first Benedictine monastery in Gaul. About the middle of the 9th century it was reduced to ruins by the Normans; in anticipation of the disaster the relics of the saint were transferred to the abbey of Fossés (afterwards St Maur-des-Fossés: see above). St Maur-sur-Loire was afterwards restored and fortified; the extant remains consist of a part of the church (12th and 17th centuries) and buildings of"the 17th and 18th centuries.


ST MAWES, a small seaport in the St Austell parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, beautifully situated on an arm of Falmouth Harbour. Pop. (1901), 1178. The inlet admits only small vessels to the little harbour, but there is a considerable fishing industry. A large circular castle, vis-à-vis with that, of Pendennis near Falmouth, and dating from the same period (Henry VIII.), guards the entrance. Near the shore of the inlet opposite St Mawes is the small church of St Anthony in Roseland, an excellent example of Early English work, retaining a good Norman doorway.

The history of St Mawes is simple. The saint of that name is said to have made the creek of the Fal a halting-place in the 5th century. The chapel of St Mawes, pulled down in 1812, was licensed by the bishop in 1381, and both chapel and village were' situated within the manor of Bogullos, which in the 16th century belonged to the family of Wydeslade. In the 16th century John Leland speaks of the castle as lately begun and describes St Mawes as “ a quarter of a mile from the castle, a pretty village or fxshertown with a pier called St Mawes and there is a chapel of the saint and his chair of stone and hard by his well.” The number of houses half a century later did not exceed twenty, and John Wydeslade, as lord of the manor of Bogullos, owned the village. Forthe part which he took in the rebellion of 1549 Wydeslade was hanged and his lands forfeited, and in 1562 the manor was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Reginald Mohun of Hall. In the same year St Mawes was incorporated and invested with the right of returning two members to the House of Commons, a privilege which it enjoyed until 1832. In 1607 the portion of the manor of Bogullos which embraced St Mawes was sold by Sir Thomas Arundell, who had married a daughter of Sir William Mohun, to Thomas Walker, and by the latter it was resold to Sir George Parry, who represented the borough in parliament from 1640 to 1642, Sir George Parry sold St, Mawes to John Tredenham, whose sons, Sir William and Sir Joseph, and Sir Joseph's son, John Tredenham, became successively its parliamentary representatives. On the death of the last named St Mawes passed by sale to John Knight, whose widow married Robert Nugent, afterwards Earl Nugent, and until the Reform Act of 1832 the Nugents controlled the elections at St Mawes. The corporation, founded in 1562, which consisted of a mayor, or port reeve, and other officers elected by about twenty free tenants, was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act in 183 5. Its 'silver mace now belongs to the corporation of Wolverhampton, to whom it passed after the great sale of the effects of the duke of Buckingham at Stowe in 1848, the duke having obtained it as the heir of the Earls Nugent. I


ST MICHAEL'S (Sdo Miguel), the largest island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. Pop. (1900), 121,340; area, 297 sq. m. The east end of St Michael's rises from a headland 1400 ft. high to the inland peak of Vara (3 573 ft.), whence a central range (2000 to 2500 ft.) runs westward, terminating on the south coast in the Serra da Agoa do Pau, about halfway across the island. The range gradually declines in approaching its last point, where it is not more than 100 ft. high. The middle part of the island is lower, and more undulating, its western extremity being marked by the conspicuous Serra Gorda (1572 ft.); its shores on both sides are low, foroken and rocky. The aspect of the western portion of the island is that of a vast truncated cone, irregularly cut off at an elevation of about 800 ft., and falling on the north, south and west sides to a perpendicular coast between 300 and 800 ft. high. In the highest parts an undergrowth of shrubs gives the mountains a rich and wooded appearance., Like all volcanic countries, the island has an uneven surface with numerous ravines, and streams of semi-vitrified and scoriaceous lava which resist all atmospheric influences and repel vegetation. Heavy rains falling on the mountains afford a constant supply of water to four lakes at the bottom of extinct craters, to a number of minor reservoirs, and through them, to small' rapid streams on all sides.

Hot springs abound in many parts, and vapour issues from almost every crevice. But the most remarkable phenomena are the Caldeiras (“ Cau1drons”), or Olhas (“Eyes”), i.e. boiling fountains, which rise chiefly from a valley called the Furnas (“ Furnaces ”), near the western extremity of the island. The water rises in columns about 12 ft. high and dissolves in vapour. The ground in the vicinity is entirely covered with native sulphur, like hoar-frost. At a small distance is the Muddy Crater, 45 ft. in diameter, on a level with the plain. Its contents are in a state of continual and violent ebullition, accompanied with a sound resembling that of a tempestuous ocean. Yet they

    British service as an interpreter, and after the war instigated Indian attacks on the frontier and fought with the Indians against General Arthur St Clair and General Anthony Wayne. Another brother, George Girty (1745-c. 1812), lived among the Delawares for several years, was a so a trader and interpreter, and was likewise a renegade. homas (1739-1820), though he associated much with the Indians, did not participate in their wars. See W. Butterf1eld's History of the Girtys (Cincinnati, 1890).