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SERVIA

and several caustic anonymous writers (especially Castellio) took 8.l't.

The following is a list of his writings:-

1. De Trinitatis erroribus libri septem (Hagenau, 1531).

2. Dialogorum de Trinitate libri duo (Hagenau, 1532); two reprints org 1 and 2, to pass for originals; No. 1 in Dutch version (1620), by Re nier Telle.

3. Claudii Rtolomaei Alexandrini geographical enarrationis libri octo; ex Bilibaldi Pirckheymeri translation, sed ad Graeca et prisca exemplaria a Michaele Villanovano jam primum recogniti. Adjecta insuper ab eodem scholia, &c. Lyons, Melchior and Gaspar Trechsel (1535; 2nd ed., Lyons, Hugo a Porta (1541), i.e. 1542 fol.; printed by Caspar Trechsel at Vienne); on this work Tollin ounds his high estimate of Servetus as a comparative geographer; the passage incriminated on his trial as attacking the verity of Moses is from Loren; F riese; the accounts of the language and character of modern nations show original observation.

4. In Leonardum Fuchsium apologia. Autore Michaele Villanovano (1536, reproduced by photography, 1909). 5. Syruporum universa ratio, &c. (Paris, 1537); four subsequent editions; latest, Venicé, 1548 (six lectures on digestion; syrups treated in fifth lecture).

6. Michaelis Villanovani in guendarn medicum apologetic disceptatio pro astrologia (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 1880); the medicus is jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology.

7. Biblia Sacra ex Santis Pagnini tralatione . . recognita et sc liis illustrate, &c. (Lyons, Hugo a Porta, 1542, fol.), remarkable for its theory of prophecy, explained in the preface and illustrated in the notes.

8. D'Artign says Servetusjit les argumens to a Spanish version of the Summa oi, Aquinas; this, and divers traités de grammaire from Latin into Spanish have not been identified.

9. Christianismi restitutia (1553; perfect copies in Vienna and Paris); a copy in Edinburgh University Library is complete except that the missing first sixteen pages are replaced by a transcript from the original draft, containing matter not in the print (this supplementary manuscript was reproduced by photography, 1909); a transcript of other portions of the draft is in the Bibl. Nat., aris; partly reprinted (London, 1723), (copies in London and Paris); reprinted (page for pa e) from the Vienna copy (Nuremberg, Rau, 1790); German version, by B. Spiess (Wiesbaden, 1892-1895); the last section Apologia to Melanchthon, is given in the original Latin. The book is not strictly anonymous; the initials to Servetus. Most of his few remaining letters are printed by Mosheim; his letter from Louvain was dispatched in duplicate (to evade capture), but both were seized; one is in the Record Office (U. 140), the other in the British Museum (Cotton MSS., Galba B. x.).

Authorities.—The literature relating to Servetus is very large; a bibliography is in A. v. d. Linde, Michael Servet (189I3, ; the following are among the important pieces. Calvin's Defensio orthodoxae jidei (1554) (in French, Déclaration four maintenir, &c., 1554), is the source o prevalent misconceptions as to Servetus's opinions, and attitude on his trial. De la Roche's Historical Account in Mem. of Lit. (1711-1712) (in French, Biblioth. Ang. Amsterdam, 1717) was followed by An Impartial History, &c., 1724 (said to be by Sir Benjamin or Nathaniel Hodges). Allwoerden's Historia, &c. (1728) (materials furnished by Mosheim) is superseded by Mosheim's Anderweitiger Versuch (1748, with appendix, Neue Nachrichten, &c., 1760), reproducing the records of the Vienne examination (since iost) first printed by D'Artigny, Nouveaux Mémoires d'hist., &c., vol. ii. (1749). Chaufepié's valuable article, Nouv. Dict. historique, iv. (1 56), fol. (in English, by Rev. James Yair, 1771) makes no use of lViosheim's later researches. Trechsel's Die Prot. Antitrinitaires vor F. Socin, bk. 1. (1839), uses all available material up to date. The investigations of H. Tollin, M.D. (forty separate articles in various journals, 1874 to 1885) have thrown much light, mixed with some conjecture. The records of the Geneva trial, first published by De la Roche, reproduced in Rilliet's Relation &c., (1844), and elsewhere, are best given in vol. viii. (1870) of the Corpus reformatorum edition of Calvin's works; Roget's Hist. du peuple de Geneve, vol. iv. (1877), has a good account of both trials. The passage on the pulmonary circulation, first noticed by W, Wotton, Reflections upon Anc. and M od. Learning (1692, has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's ie Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs, &c. (1876); Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev. (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen uber Harvey und seine Vorganger (1882). Other physiological speculations of Servetus are noted by G. Sigmond, Unnoticed Theories of Seri/etus (1826). The best stud of Servetus as a theologian is Tollin's Lehrsystem M. Servets (3 vols., 1876-1878); Piinyer's De M. Serveti doctrina (1876), is useful. From a Unitarianpoint of view, Servetus is treated by R. Wright, Apology (1807); W. H. Drummond, D.D. (1848); R. Wallace, Antitrin. Bing. (1850); J. S. Porter, Servetus and Calvin (1854). E. Saisset, Rev. des deux Mondes (1848), treats Servetus as a pantheist; he is followed by Menendez Pelayo, Los Heterodoxos espanoles (1880, vol. ii.), and by R. Willis, M.D., Servetus and Calvin (1877» an unsatisfactory book; cf. A. Gordon, Theol. Rev., April and July 1878). Of Servetus's personal character the best vindication is ollin's Characterbild M Servets (1876, in French, with additions by Dardier, Portrait Caractere, 1879). His story has been dramatized by Max Ring, Die Genfer (1850), by josé Echegaray, La Muerte en los Labios (1880), by Albert Hamann, Seri/et (1881), and by Prof. Shields, The Reformer of Geneva (1897). Recent pamphlets by Spanish and French writers are numerous; some of the illustrations in Dr W. Osler's Michael Servetus (1909), are useful.


SERVIA[1] [Srbiya], an inland kingdom of south-eastern Europe, situated in the north of the Balkan Peninsula. The frontier, as defined by the Berlin Treaty of 1878, is, roughly speaking, indicated by rivers in thenorth, and by mountains in the south. In the north, between Verciorova and

Belgrade, the Danube divides Servia from Hungary for 157 m.; and between Belgrade and the border village of Racha the Save divides it from Croatia-Slavonia for 80 m. In the north-west the Drina Bows for me rn. between Bosnia and Servia;

  1. The English—speaking races' alone write this word with a instead of a b, Servia for Serbia; a practice resented by the Serbs, as suggesting the derivation of their name from the Latin Sefvus. “ a slave."