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Page:Economic Development in Denmark Before and During the World War.djvu/102

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN DENMARK

supply was regulated by the establishment of an export duty on milk, cream, and cheese. An act of December 21, 1917, which was to remain in force until the end of October 1918, secured a certain quantity of milk for each individual at a fixed price, the state granting a subsidy of 8,000,000 kroner to be distributed among the communities according to their population. This act was replaced in November 1918 by a new act to supply butter, milk, cheese, and pork on the same system; and a tax was also planned upon cream sold within the country.

In order to insure the meat supply for the home market at a moderate price, an export duty on live stock was established by a note of July 7, 1916. The duty was to be levied at such a rate that meat in the home market might be sold at a reasonable price. The arrangement was laid down in an act of July 23, 1918. It is tempting to have to remind of 'dumping', only the home price in this case is lower than the export prices.

The list of such measures on the part of the state is by no means exhausted. Directly it was attempted to influence the supply of necessary goods, for instance, by encouraging the production of food at home, one effect of that policy was to increase the production of fuel at home. By an act of April 20, 1917 (amended on March 20, 1918), the Secretary of the Home Office was authorized to enjoin an increased felling of trees on all forest lands. Indirectly the aim of government was to increase the producing power of agriculture through the importation of fertilizers. The Secretary of the Home Office was authorized to purchase Norway saltpetre for the account of the state and to sell it to consumers at a considerably reduced price (act of March 7, 1918). The government also subsidized fishing to a considerable extent, so as to reduce the cost of fish. Various commodities, such as petroleum and oil, as well as technical fats, soap, tea, coffee, and sugar, were placed under control. At the close of the year 1916 the state took over the expense arising from the sale of sugar at a considerably lower price than it