people of the price of milk cost the state 8,000,000 kroner, and the slaughter-houses received 13,100,000 kroner for the slaughtering of hogs for the home market. As some small compensation for these extraordinary expenses, there is a surplus from fuel of upwards of 1,000,000 kroner, and a penalty on farmers for insufficient deliveries of grain of 800,000 kroner. The relief funds received a grant of 3,300,000 kroner; aid to the unemployed amounted to 14,900,000 kroner; while the municipalities received from the state 19,200,000 kroner pursuant to the laws passed to alleviate the high cost of living. Of course, the cost of the whole rationing system and of the numerous councils was not small. Besides 900,000 kroner for the administration of grain supplies, more than 500,000 kroner was spent on price-regulating boards, councils, and committees, and 760,000 kroner on food-cards. To all this, finally, must be added from the accounts of the Finance Department the increase in salaries of functionaries to make up for the high war prices, amounting to upwards of 30,000,000 kroner.
Summary and Conclusion
At this early date it is impossible to decide whether the government has acted wisely or unwisely in pursuing the policy outlined above. Criticism will scarcely condemn its efforts to check the exportation of goods which were needed by the populace, or to cut down by taxation the large incomes resulting from abnormal market conditions during the war, or to control prices and regulate the consumption of bread, sugar, butter, etc. These measures are interesting as proof of the enormous growth of the power of the state during the last generation. In France, in 1792-1793, attempts were made in vain to supply the nation with the necessaries of life. The Convention prohibited, under penalty of death and seizure of the produce, the exportation of grain and flour. On September 29, 1793, maximum prices were fixed for a number of goods, and the exportation