latter was reorganized in 1912 as 'The Central Organization of Danish Dairy Associations', the purposes of which were to guard the common interests of the dairies, to note exchange quotations, to compile dairy statistics, etc. A now abolished association sought to introduce a common trade-mark to protect exported butter against imitations. Finally, an act of 1906 legalized a common trade-mark for all butter prepared from pasteurized cream. An act of 1911 prohibited the use of this trade-mark (Lur Brand) on butter containing more than 16 per cent, of water, which was thereby debarred from exportation. The Danish Dairy Farmers' Association, incorporated in 1887, has established an accident insurance, a relief fund, etc. It also organizes exhibits and works in various other ways for the common welfare.
Further Development of the Co-operative Movement
The principle of co-operation was bound to extend to the exploitation of other agricultural products. In 1887 co-operative slaughter-houses and bacon factories were established in the face of no little opposition on the part of private bacon factories and from various other quarters. This opposition was gradually overcome, however, and in 1909 about half the number of all pig herds in Denmark (comprising two thirds of all the pigs) were in co-operative bacon factories. These are run chiefly with an eye to export. The money for establishing them is generally raised by loans, a first mortgage, a second mortgage to be repaid in instalments, and a working loan. It testifies to the growing understanding of the value of this business that the first mortgage is now often granted by the town in which the bacon factory is located, even in towns where at first such a factory was strongly opposed by the local government. Profits are divided between the members of the corporation in proportion to the value of the pork delivered by them, and as a result of strict classification the pork received has greatly unproved in quality. Here too we find associations; the slaughterhouses have their mutual accident insurance, and are repre-