Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/118

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Seghôl, but with medial or final gutturals a Pathaḥ,[1] and after י a Ḥireq, e.g. וַיִּ֫גֶל and he revealed, for wayyigl; יִ֫רֶב let it multiply, for yirb; קֹ֫דֶשׁ holiness, ground-form qudš; נַ֫חַל brook, ground-form naḥl; שָׁלַ֫חַתְּ[2]for שָׁלַחְתְּ thou hast sent; בַּ֫יִת house, ground-form bayt. These helping vowels are, however, to be regarded as exactly like furtive Pathaḥ (§22f, g); they do not alter the monosyllabic character of the forms, and they disappear before formative suffixes, e.g. קָדְשִׁ֫י my holiness, בַּ֫יְתָה home-ward.

 [28f5. On the rise of a full vowel in place of a simple Še, under the influence of the pause, see §29m; on initial אֵ for אֱ, see §23h.

§29. The Tone, its Changes and the Pause.

 [29a1. The principal tone rests, according to the Masoretic accentuation (cf. §15c), as a rule on the final syllable, e.g. קָטַ֫ל, דָּבָ֫ר, דְּבָר֫וֹ, דְּבָרִ֫ים, קְטַלְתֶּ֫ם, קָֽטְלוּ֫, קִדְר֫וֹן—in the last five examples on the formative additions to the stem. Less frequently it rests on the penultima, as in לַ֫יְלָה night, קָטַ֫לְתָּ, קַ֫לּוּ, קָ֫מוּ; but a closed penultima can only have the tone if the ultima is open (e.g. קָטַ֫לְתָּ, לֵ֫כְנָה, קֹ֫מְנָה), whilst a closed ultima can as a rule only be without the tone if the penultima is open, e.g. וַיָּ֫קֶם, וַיָּ֫קָם; see also below, e.

 [29b]  A kind of counter-tone or secondary stress, as opposed to the principal tone, is marked by Metheg (§16c). Words which are closely united by Maqqeph with the following word (§16a) can at the most have only a secondary tone.

 [29c2. The original tone of a word, however, frequently shifts its place in consequence either of changes in the word itself, or of its close connexion with other words. If the word is increased at the end, the tone is moved forward (descendit) one or two places according to the length of the addition, e.g. דָּבָ֫ד word, plur. דְּבָרִ֫ים; דִּבְרֵיכֶ֫ם your words; קֹ֫דֶשׁ holy thing, plur. קָֽדָ֫שִׁ֫ים; קָטַ֫לְתָּ with suffix קְטַלְתָּ֫הוּ, with Wāw consecutive וְקָֽטַלְתָּ֫. On the consequent vowel-changes, see §27d, i–m.

 [29d3. On the other hand, the original tone is shifted from the ultima to the penultima (ascendit):

  1. On the apparent exceptions דֶּשֶׁא, &c., cf. §22e; other instances in which א has entirely lost its consonantal value, and is only retained orthographically, are חֵטְא sin, גַּיְא valley (also גַּי), שָׁוְא vanity (Jb 1531 Kethîbh שָׁו).
  2. In this form (§65g) the Dageš lene remains in the final Tāw, although a vowel precedes, in order to point out that the helping Pathaḥ is not to be regarded as a really full vowel, but merely as an orthographic indication of a very slight sound, to ensure the correct pronunciation. An analogous case is יִחַדְּ yiḥăd from חָדָה (§75r).