Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/195

This page needs to be proofread.

 [64h]  3. The following are a few rarer anomalies; in the imperfect Qal יִֽצֲחַק Gn 216 (elsewhere תִּצְחַק, &c., in pause יִצְחָק, cf. §10g (c) and §63n); וָֽאֵחַר Gn 325 (for וָאֶֽאֱחַר); in the perfect Piʿēl אֶֽחֱרוּ Ju 528 (perhaps primarily for אִֽחֲרוּ; according to Gn 3419 אֵֽחֲרוּ would be expected), and similarly יֶחֱֽמַ֫תְנִי ψ 517 for יִחֲֽמַ֫תְנִי; in the imperative Piʿēl קָרַב Ez 3717 (cf. above, §52n); finally, in the imperative Hiphʿîl הַרְחַק Jb 1321 and הַמְעַד ψ 6924, in both cases probably influenced by the closing consonant, and by the preference for Pathaḥ in pause (according to §29q); without the pause הַרְחֵק Pr 424, &c.; but also הַנְחַת Jo 411.

 [64i]  4. As infinitive Hithpaʿēl with a suffix we find הִתְיַחְשָׂם Ezr 81, &c., with a firmly closed syllable, also the participle מִתְיַחְשִׂים Neh 764; Baer, however, reads in all these cases, on good authority, הִתְיַֽחֲשָׂם &c.—The quite meaningless Kethîbh ונאשאר Ez 98 (for which the Qe requires the equally unintelligible וְנֵֽשֲׁאַר) evidently combines two different readings, viz. וְנִשְׁאָר (part. Niph.) and וָֽאֶשָּׁאֵר (imperf. consec.); cf. König, Lehrgebäude, i. p. 266 f.—In יְתָֽאֳרֵ֫הוּ Is 4413 (also יְתָֽאֲרֵ֫הוּ in the same verse) an imperfect Pôʿēl appears to be intended by the Masora with an irregular shortening of the ô for יְתֹֽאֲר׳; cf. §55b מְלָשְׁנִי ψ 1015 Qe; on the other hand Qimḥi, with whom Delitzsch agrees, explains the form as Piʿēl, with an irregular ־ֳ for ־ֲ, as in the reading אֲלַקֳּטָה Ru 22.7; cf. §10h.

5. A few examples in which א, as middle radical, entirely loses its consonantal value and quiesces in a vowel, will be found in §73g.

§65. Verbs Third Guttural, e.g. שָׁלַח to send.[1]

 [65a1. According to §22d, when the last syllable has a vowel incompatible with the guttural (i.e. not an a-sound), two possibilities present themselves, viz. either the regular vowel remains, and the guttural then takes furtive Pathaḥ, or Pathaḥ (in pause Qameṣ) takes its place. More particularly it is to be remarked that—

(a) The unchangeable vowels ־ִי, וֹ, וּ (§25b) are always retained, even under such circumstances; hence inf. abs. Qal שָׁלוֹחַ, part. pass. שָׁלוּחַ, Hiph. הִשְׁלִיחַ, imperf. יַשְׁלִיחַ, part. מַשְׁלִיחַ. So also the less firm ō in the inf. constr. שְׁלֹח is almost always retained: cf., however, שְׁלַח, in close connexion with a substantive, Is 589, and גְּוַע Nu 203. Examples of the infinitive with suffixes are בְּבָרְחֲךָ Gn 351; בְּפִגְעוֹ Nu 3519; לְרִבְעָהּ Lv 1823, &c.

 [65b]  (b) The imperfect and imperative Qal almost always have ă in the second syllable, sometimes, no doubt, due simply to the influence of the guttural (for a tone-long ō, originally ŭ), but sometimes as being the original vowel, thus יִשְׁלַח, שְׁלַח, &c.; with suffixes יִשְׁלָחֵ֫נִי, שְׁלָחֵ֫נִי, see §60c.

  1. Verbs ל״ה in which the ה is consonantal obviously belong also to this class, e.g. גָּבַהּ to be high, תָּמַהּ to be astonished, מָהַהּ (only in Hithpalpel) to delay.