Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/447

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 [130g]  (6) The numeral אַחַד one for אֶחָד in close connexion, and even with small disjunctives, e.g. Gn 322, 4822, 1 S 93, 2 S 1722, Is 2712, Zc 117.

The character of these passages shows that the numeral here cannot be in the construct state, but is merely a rhythmical shortening of the usual (tone-lengthened) form.

§131. Apposition.

 [131a1. Apposition in the stricter sense is the collocation of two substantives in the same case in order to define more exactly (or to complete) the one by the other, and, as a rule (see, however, below, under g), the former by the latter. Apposition in Hebrew (as in the other Semitic languages[1]) is by no means confined to those cases in which it is used in English or in the classical languages. It is not infrequently found when either the subordination of one substantive to the other or some more circumstantial kind of epexegetical addition would be expected.

2. The principal kinds of apposition in Hebrew are:—

 [131b]  (a) The collocation of genus and species, e.g. אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה a woman (who was) a widow, 1 K 714; נַֽעֲרָה בְתוּלָה a damsel (that is) a virgin, Dt 2223, 28, Ju 44, 191, 2112, 1 S 3017, 1 K 12; cf. Gn 138, 2120 (where, however, קַשָּׁת is probably an explanatory gloss); Ex 245 (1 S 1115), 2 S 1516, 1 K 316, 529 (but probably סֵ֫בֶל should be read instead of סַבָּל); Is 324 (unless מַֽעֲשֵׂה is to be read), Jer 201. Perhaps also כֹּחֵן הָרֹאשׁ the priest (who is) the chief man, 2 K 2518, &c.; others take כֹּהֵן as constr, st.—In 2 S 107 read כָּל־צְבָא הַגִּבּ׳ with the LXX, as in the parallel passage 1 Ch 199 for כָּל־צָבָא הַגּ׳, which is evidently meant to refer to the reading in 2 S.

 [131c]  (b) Collocation of the person or thing and the attribute, e.g. Jb 2029 (27:13) זֶה חֵ֫לֶק־אָדָם רָשָׁע this is the portion of a man, (who is) a wicked man (but רָשָׁע might also be an adject.); cf. Pr 612.—Lv 613, 164 (where, however, קֹ֫דֶשׁ is probably a gloss); Pr 2221 אֲמָרִים אֱמֶת words (which are) truth; (immediately after אִמְרֵי אֱמֶת) cf. 1 S 213, Mi 111 (where, however, בּ֫שֶׁת is most probably a gloss on עֶרְיָה); Zc 113 (=comfortable words); ψ 455 (?) 68:17 (cf. verse 16). In a wider sense this includes also such cases as ψ 605 יַ֫יִן תַּרְעֵלָה wine which is staggering (intoxicating drink), which causes staggering[2]; 1 K 2227, 2 Ch 1826 מַ֫יִם לַ֫חַץ (in

  1. On certain uses of apposition peculiar to the Semitic languages, cf. the exhaustive discussion by Fleischer, ‘Ueber einige Arten der Nominalapposition im Arab.’ (Kleine Schriften, ii. 16); [and see also Driver, Tenses, Appendix IV.]
  2. Unless it is to be translated thou gavest us intoxication to drink as wine (and so in 1 K 2227 give him affliction to eat as bread, &c.); cf. ψ 806 and the analogous examples of apposition in the form of a second accusative in §117kk. Moreover, having regard to יַ֫יִן הָרֶ֫קַח spiced wine, Ct 82, and עַ֫יִד פֶּ֫רֶא a wild ass’s colt, Jb 1112 (in which passages יַ֫יִן and עַ֫יִר must certainly be in the construct state) we cannot but ask whether the Masora does not intend the יַ֫יִן in ψ 605 to be taken as construct state (for which elsewhere יֵין).