flounders (the bones and trimmings of fish will serve), 1 onion sliced, a blade of mace, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 12 white peppercorns, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 quarts of water.
Method.—Put all the ingredients together into a clean stewpan, and simmer gently for 1 hour from the time the stock begins to cook, when all that is desirable will have been extracted. Further cooking sometimes imparts a disagreeably bitter taste to the stock. The stock should be well skimmed, strained, and put into a basin. For thick soups and sauces it is ready for immediate use, but for clear fish stock (which is very rarely used), it would be necessary to clarify it with the whites and shells of eggs, allowing 4 to each quart of stock.
Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 6d. per quart. Quantity, about 3 pints of stock.
Chop up, rather small, some bones from roast meat, fry them till brown in a pan with a little dripping; pour off all the fat, and add enough stock or water to cover the bones. Season with salt and pepper, and boil for half an hour. Strain and use as required.
The bones and meat used for making stock, and the meat used for clearing consommé (clear soup) should be covered with cold water and cooked for several hours to make what is known as "second," or "ordinary" stock. Neither seasoning nor flavouring is added, as this second stock forms the basis of soups, stews, and sauces which have a distinct flavour of their own.
Ingredients.—3 carrots, 2 onions, 1 turnip, 2 tomatoes, 1 stick of celery, 1 head of lettuce, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a blade of mace, 12 peppercorns, 2 cloves, 3 ozs. of butter, 2 quarts of water, 1 teaspoonful of salt.
Method.—Cut the onions, turnips and carrots into thin slices, and the celery into small pieces. Make the butter hot in a stewpan, put in the vegetables and fry gently for ½ an hour, keeping the stewpan covered. In the meantime shred the lettuce, and when the vegetables are sufficiently cooked, add it, together with the tomatoes (sliced), herbs, flavourings, seasonings and water, and bring gently to the boil. Skim off the scum as it rises, then cover and simmer gently for 1½ hours, strain, and it is ready for use.
Time.—2 hours. Average Cost, 5d. per quart. Quantity, about 2 quarts.