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STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUP

9.—WHITE, or VEAL STOCK. (Fr.Blond de Veau.)

Ingredients.—4 lb. of knuckle of veal, the neck and cleaned feet of a chicken, the bones of a chicken (or one shilling's worth of veal bones and an old fowl), 2 carrots, 2 onions, 1 turnip, 1 strip of celery, bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 12 peppercorns, 2 cloves, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 1 quart to each lb. of meat and bone.

Method.—Cut up the meat and break the bones into small pieces, put them into a large stewpan with the salt and water, and let them stand for about 1 hour. Bring gently to boiling point, remove the scum as it rises, and when the stock is quite clear put in the herbs and vegetables, which should previously have been prepared and cut into large pieces, or if small left whole. Let the stock boil up after putting in the vegetables and skim well until clear, then put on the cover, draw the pan to the side of the stove and simmer VERY GENTLY for 5 or 6 hours, taking care to skim off the fat as it rises. When sufficiently cooked, strain off, and when cold remove the fat.

Time.—6 hours. Average Cost, 1s. per quart. Quantity,—4 quarts.

Note.—The liquor in which chicken, veal, rabbit, calf's head or mutton has been boiled makes excellent stock for white soups; and the cold remains of any of these ingredients may be made into second stock, which, if not very rich, is obviously better than water in making the inexpensive white soups.

10.—TO CLARIFY STOCK FOR CLEAR SOUP, or CONSOMMÉ

The following is a simple way by which any cloudy stock can be clarified or rendered transparent. Peel, wash and cut up small the following prepared vegetables: ½ an onion or ½ a leek, 1 small carrot, a piece of celery or some celery leaves; put these into a clean and dry stewpan, with a sprig of thyme and marjoram, a sprig or two of tarragon, chervil, 6 peppercorns, the white and shell of an egg (the egg shell must be clean), a little lemon-juice and a teaspoonful of vinegar. Stir this with a whisk, and add ¼ to ¾ of a lb. of finely-chopped lean beef, moistened with a little cold water, then put in the stock (2 to 3 quarts), which should be cold and free from fat. Bring it to the boil whilst whisking, remove from the fire, and let it simmer gently for about 20 to 30 minutes. Season to taste with salt, etc., and strain through a cloth.

Average Cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

The Laurel, or Bay (Fr. laurier).—There are two varieties of the laurel chiefly cultivated in gardens, the sweet bay—the noble or victor's laurel, whose berry-bearing sprays were used in classic times to decorate competitors in the national games—and the common or cherry-laurel, which is not a true laurel, whose leaves are employed for their kernel-like flavour, for blanc-manges, custards, puddings, etc. By the action of water upon the leaves of the cherry-laurel prussic acid is developed; care should therefore be taken to use the leaves with great moderation.