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and when it comes to the boil skim well, but unless the meat be very fat very little subsequent skimming is needed, as the potatoes absorb the greater part melted out of the meat. The stewpan must be kept covered, and the contents cooked gently for about 1½ hours, or until the potatoes are thoroughly cooked and the stew loses its watery appearance. If liked, a teaspoonful of mushroom or walnut ketchup may be added before serving. Pile in the centre of a hot dish, sprinkle on a little chopped parsley, and serve.

Time.—From 2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

1012.—KIDNEYS, GRILLED. (Fr.Rôgnons Grillés.)

Ingredients.—Kidneys, croûtons of fried bread or buttered toast, salad-oil or oiled butter, Maître d'hôtel butter, see recipe No. 551.

Method.—Cover the kidneys with boiling water, and let them remain in it for 2 minutes. Drain, dry, remove the skin, split in two lengthwise, but without detaching the halves. Pass a steel skewer through them, to keep them open, brush over with salad-oil or oiled butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill them over a clear fire, cooking the cut side first. Time required for cooking depends upon the size of the kidney and individual taste; 5 minutes will be found sufficient for a small kidney, and 8 minutes for a large one; kidneys are almost uneatable when overcooked. Have the croûtons ready and as hot as possible, place a kidney on each with a small pat of maître d'hôtel butter in the centre of each kidney. Serve at once.

Time.—To grill, from 5 to 8 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. each. Sufficient, 1 to each person.

1013.—KIDNEYS, SAUTED. (Fr.Rôgnons Sautés.)

Ingredients.—3 sheep's kidneys, 1 oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of brown sauce, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, 1 shallot finely-chopped, salt and pepper.

Method.—Immerse the kidneys in boiling water for 2 minutes, drain, dry, remove the skins and cores, and cut them into ¼ inch slices. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, fry the shallot slightly, put in the kidney, and shake or toss over the fire for 3 or 4 minutes. Drain off a little of the butter, add the brown sauce, sherry, salt and pepper, stir by the side of the fire until thoroughly hot, but do not let the mixture boil. Serve as hot as possible.

Time.—About 5 or 6 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. or 4d. each. Sufficient, 1 kidney to each person.

Note.—For other methods of cooking kidneys, see recipes for dressing veal and beef kidney.