12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 151 extra-illustrated copies of this work were offered for sale in 1856. I shall be glad if information can be given as to their present location. ROLAND AUSTIN. THE CAP OF MAINTENANCE. Can any reader tell me the origin of this symbol, which is used in all royal ceremonies ? Authorities appear to differ. The general impression seems to be that the real object of the cap is lost in the mists of antiquity. WILLIAM BULL. Hammersmith. [" The sense of maintenance," says the ' N.E.D.' on this subject, " here is obscure." In the first quotation, c. 1485, the expression is hat of main- tenance. The cap of maintenance is mentioned I as having been sent by the Pope to Henry VII. and Henry VIII. ; and in 1551, along with the crown or diadem as one of the insignia of a prince. The question of its origin has been discussed in our columns at 9 S. vii. 192 8 S. v. 268, 415 4 S. ii. 560 ; viii. 399, 5201 S. vi. 324. Nothing was elicited as to its origin, though many par- ticulars as to its use were supplied.] JOHN FILMER EMMETT graduated B.A. at Cambridge University from Trinity College in 1827. I should be glad to obtain parti- culars of his parentage and career. He was born Oct. 31, 1805. When and where did he die ? G. F. R. B. LAZENKI PALACE, WARSAW : LATIN IN- SCRIPTIONS. I should feel much obliged for information on the following points. Over the entrance door of the Lazenki Palace, Warsaw, there is (or was before the Great War) an inscription running thus : ODIT TRISTITIAS HAEC ' DOMUS AM AT . FUNDIT ' COMMEND AT ET O TAT PACKM ' BALNEA RURA PROBOS A little lower to right and left of the portal are medallions, two in number, one symbolizing the Genius habitantis, the other the Genius loci. That of the habitans has inscribed within : FRONS SERENA vox SINCERA. That of the locus : MENTI * QUIES (and two more words I cannot remember). The notes I had made on the spot of these in- scriptions and of the symbolic medallions have been mislaid. I have tried in vain for refer- ences in usual works. The first inscription is a quaint concetto when read in proper collocation. Are there many similar ones to be found ? I have forgotten the exact symbolic figures in the medallions. The Lazenki was the summer palace of the last King of Poland, Stanislas Augustus. Obviously optat. The monogram SA stands out among the above inscriptions, which reflect un naturel charmant. VALENTINE J. O'HARA. Authors' Club, London. ' THE TALE OF Two CITIES ' : THE DRUGGING OF DARN AY. How was Charles Darnay drugged ? Has the exact nature of this drug been ascertained ? According to chap. xiii. of the novel, Darnay noticed that a curious vapour was present in the cell just before Sydney Carton ren- dered him unconscious. This seems to suggest chloroform (discovered in 1831). In chap. xi. it is stated to be a mixture and probably also a poison. Perhaps the lack of details is due to the fact that Dickens was guilty of a daring anachronism. What was the date of the article in The British Medical Journal on * The Medical Accuracy of Dickens ' ? J. ARDAGH. CHALK IN KENT AND ITS OWNERS : RYE, CORNHILL, VILERS, ST. CLAIR. In the Cartulary of the Monastery of St. John the Baptist at Colchester (Roxburgh Club, London : 1897), there are the following references : Page Date 43 1120c. Roger de Vilers gave half a hide in Chich, Hamo his brother two parts tenths of Walchra and all the mill. 156 IHOc. Hamon de St. Clair grants the mill of Walchra to St. Mary Walchra in perpetual alms. 42 1198. Charter of King Richard refers to gifts of Roger de Vilers and Hamon his brother, Hamon de St. Clair, Wm. de St. Clair, Eudes le Seneschal (Eudo Dapi- fer), &c. 120 (1226-35). Henry, bishop of Rochester, narrates inspection of -confirma- tion by Pope Alexander to the above monastery of certain gifts including that from Hamon de St. Clair of all tenths in the village of Chalcra. In another work (' Sinclairs of England,' pp. 216/7) the following charters are said to be in the Harleian collection at the British Museum : 1145c. Charter of Hubert de St. Clair to the church of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, about the church of Chalke, and land and an annual return in the same manor. 1180e. Charter of William de Lanvaley con- firming the donation of Hubert de St. Clair, his grandfather, as above ; " particularly various matters between the prior of Bermondsey and the prior
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