186 NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.x. MAR. 11,1922. glacier, free 1409, and his son, Johannes Bedford, clericus, free 1437. 1421. Willelmus Gent, glasyer. 1425. Johannes Coverham, glasyer. He was evidently the " John, servant of John Burgh," who is mentioned in the Fabric Boll for the year 1414, and later, in 1419, under his full name, which is coupled with that of John Burgh, who was presumably, therefore, his master. John Cover- ham's son Thomas was free in 1448. 1426. Thomas Husthwayt, ferrour. Hus- thwaite is a village near Easingwold, in the East Biding of Yorkshire. 1427. Bicardus Penbrygge, glasyer. He prob- ably came from Pembridge in Herefordshire. . William Bownas, glasyer. The only information we have of him is that contained in his will (Beg. Test. Ebpr., ii. 648), where he de- scribed himself as a " citizen and glazier of York, dwelling in the parish of St. Wilfrid," in the churchyard of which he was buried. All his goods he bequeathed to his wife Cecilia. Will proved April 22, 1431. 1436. Willelmus Thwaytes, glasyer. 1438. Willelmus Cartmell, glasier. William Cartmell and William Bownas (vide s.a. 1431, above) or their ancestors evidently came from the Lake District, Cartmel being the name of a village and Priory in Lancashire, and there are two villages named Bowness, one in Cumberland and the other on Lake Windermere. The work of the York glass-painters was as well known on the west as on the east coast, and many churches and abbeys in the Lake District sent to York to have their windows painted. Bobert Preston, the glass- painter, who died in 1503, left a sum of money to Wedrall Abbey, near Carlisle ; and Sir John Petty (d. 1508) bequeathed 13s. 4d. to Furness Abbey in Lancashire " be cause," as he said, " I have wroght mych wark there." In the little village church of Cartmel Fell, some few miles from the Priory of Cartmel, is some typical York canopy work. William Cartmell was probably the "William" mentioned in the Fabric Boll of 1443, and under his full name in those of 1444-1447, and again (or a, son of the same name) in 1471. It is presumed he was one of Thomas Shirley's workmen (vide 12 S. viii. 365). 1439. Thomas Shirlay, glasyer (vide 12 S. viii. 364). 1442. Johannes Neusom, glasier, fil. Johannis Neusom. Free of the city by patrimony. His father, John Newsom, was free in 1418. He evidently learnt his business or was in the employ of Thomas Shirley, who in his will, made in 1456, bequeathed " to John Newsom, if he be in my service at the time of my decease, 3s. 4d." (Beg. Test. Ebor.. ii. 380 d). John Newsom's son Thomas was free in 1442. 1443. John Ley, glasier's son William Ley, parchemyner, was free of the city. 1446. Thomas Mylet. Probably a partner of Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). In 1463-4, he was one of the glass-painters to whom new ordinances were granted. 1447. Bicardus Chambre, glasier, fil Johannis Chaumbre, glasier (vide 12 S. viii. 128). . Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). 1448. Thomas Coverham, glasier, fil Johannis Coverham, glasier. Son of John Coverhatn, free 1425, and one of John Chamber the younger's workmen, who at his death in 1451 left him Is. 8d. (vide 12 S. viii. 128). In 1463-4, he was evidently a master, as his name appears amongst those to whom new ordinances were granted in that year. In 1471 he was doing work for the Minster (Fabric Bolls, s.a. 1471). 1450. Will Inglysshe, als Bichardson, glasyer (vide 12 S. vii j . 323). JOHN A. KNOWLES. (To be concluded.) ANCIENT BRASS ENGRAVING. SEEING that my note on the Stoke d'Abernon enamelled shield (12 S. viii. 428) has been received with considerable interest, it occurs to me that a few remarks upon the ancient method of engraving, and the kind of tools used for the purpose, may also be acceptable. I have a photograph of the British Museum MS. from which Haines illustrated his comments on the subject, and am in- clined to think that the sketch may refer to the engraving of a brass quite as much as to the incising of stone, for at least one of the artificers is apparently cutting length- wise with the lines of the effigy. This method of cutting can only be employed in the case of metal. Incisions in stone, whether long or short, must be cut by laying a wide flat tool along one edge of the line and driving the tool, by means of a mallet, into the stone towards the other edge of the line, and then repeating the process from the opposite side, so as to produce a V-shaped incision as long as the width of the tool. To attempt to make the chisel travel along a line in stone would break away both edges of the incision in flakes of various sizes. Thus the so-called V-cut letters are peculiar to stone and never found in ancient brass, save perhaps in the case of a fine stroke for which a single lengthwise cut will serve without any thickening up. There is little doubt that the earliest brass en- graving was conducted in exactly the same manner as in the present day, and with tools the points of which were like those of to-day. The only difference appears to be that, in olden times, the larger sunken spaces, such as those between the legs and sword of a knight (in late brasses such spaces not being perforated) or as in the field of a coat of arms, were cross-hatched with a V-pointed tool alone, whereas now a flat chisel may also be introduced. A very small fragment of brass in the stroke of a letter, the cutting away of which was accidentally omitted, has provided a certain proof that lettering was engraved
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