NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. XL MARCH 21, 1903.
suspicious, and casts some doubt on the story.
Major's 'Greater Britain 'devotes many pages to the life and work of Bruce, and while his notice of the battle of Halidon Hill is a fairly full one, not a word is mentioned of Turnbull or his mastiff, nor does he anywhere retail the wild bull story ; but in his account of the battle of N is bet Muir, 1355, mention is made of the death of Sir James Turnbull and Sir John Halliburton. We learn from Major that among the numerous Scottish students at Paris during his residence there was one George Turnbull.*
The name Bullock is not uncommon at an early date. In 1287 we find a Richard Bullok. in 1296 a Walter Bulloc, in 1329 William Bulloc, attorney for the provosts of Hadding- ton, arid William Bulloc was provost of that town in 1330. The name carried " Or, three bulls' heads carbossed gules," and we learn the Turn bulls' arms is "Argent, a bull's head erased sable," and of late three of them, dis- posed two and one.t The name Bull had " Or, three bulls' heads caboshed gules. "+ In 'The Scottish Arms,' from which I quote the arms, one Turnbull is spelt Tourneboulle, and another " Turnbull of yat ilk." The various ways in which Turnbull is spelt are not re- markable, for in 1586, at the time of James IV.'s visit to the borders, for punitive purposes, one of those punished was Trubillis, which here means Turubull. Now the de- ductions I draw will not make a greater demand on readers' credulity than to realize that Trubillis and Turnbull are one and the same name.
We find that the name Trumble often occurs in Border history. Readers will form their own opinion as to whether there is any connexion between it and Turnbull. In 1675- 1678 the names might well be understood to refer to distinct families, but close investiga- tion of the Lord High Treasurer's accounts, 1473-8, will dispel the idea.
In 1490 we find the name Trumble, and in 1494 George Trumbill and George Turnbull, the difference in spelling being doubtless due to the scribe, for the names are indexed under the same head. In 1266 there is a Walter deTrembeley, and in 1296 Robert deTremblay swears fealty. This name occurs before Bruce could have had any part in the bull episode. So far, then, we have Trumble, Trumbill Trembeley, Trerablay, Tremblee, &c., and I venture the opinion that they are all variants of the same name.
- Major went to Paris in 1493.
| Scottish Arms, A.D. 1370-1678,' R. R. Stodart. ^ ' bynopsis of Heraldry, 3 1682.
We now turn to the name said to have been originally Roull, and learn that there was a Richard de (?) Rullos in 1130 * Then we find an estate or lands of Behule about the period mentioned, or nearly 150 years before the birth of Bruce, and about 176 years prior to his being crowned. In 1248 is found a Gilbertus de Behulle, and mention of " terra de Rul " in 1266, from the context no doubt in Roxburghshire ; a Thomas de Roule in 1296. In short, there is an estate variously called Bedrule, Bedroule, Bethiroull, Bethie- roule, &c., all of which I opine to represent one estate, land, or stronghold, Bedrule.t I take it that the head of the clan was Turn- bull, whose stronghold was Bedrule Castle. I assume that the head of the clan was known as Rule, Roull, or any of its variants. For this assumption ample grounds exist to-day in Scotland and in its past history. Turn- bull of Fenwick, in State documents, 1572, is referred to as Fenwick, and Ker of Fernie- hirst, in similar documents, as Ferniehirst. I submit, therefore, with all diffidence, when Bruce is recorded as having granted lands to Turnbull for services rendered, these services are more likely to have been for the further- ance of his kingdom and its interests than for the mythical bull incident, which I am dis- posed to think was introduced by an enthu- siastic admirer of Bruce, who wished to give a pleasing finish to his master's generosity. Roull was the name Turnbull was invariably known by, and his personal name was never altered. Had Roull been his personal name, and not that by which he was associated with his land, and had it been changed to Turnbull, it is more than probable the alteration would have been referred to in some way in the grant mentioned.
ALFRED CHAS. JONAS.
VANITY FAIR (9 th S. x. 488). Bunyan's explanation of the phrase appears to indicate that he himself was the originator of it He says, " It beareth the name of Vanity-Fair, because the town where it is kept is lighter than vanity ; and also because all that is there sold,or that cometh thither, is vanity." Xow Psalm Ixii. 9 says, " Surely men of low
- ' Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland,'
t In the interesting ' Diary ' of George Turnbull (1687), of Fifeshire, who is said to be a descendant of the original Border family, there is a pedigree which begins with a Turnbull, whose Christian name is unknown, but who is followed by his two sons, Andrew and George, from whom the pedigree is worked out. In the introduction we are told the Turnbulls are descended from a family named Roule, and are thus introduced to the bull story again.