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. ix. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


clays in Saxony, Prussia, and elsewhere in Germany. Without a study of these it is, however, impossible to understand her life as queen in England. Her early association with Leibniz and the delight she conceived in metaphysical and theological discus- sion are responsible for the unpopularity with the High Church party begotten of her ecclesiastical apj >ointments and for the charge of Erastianism brought against her in common with her husband and Walpole. On these matters Mr. Wilkins dwells at some length, and what he says concerning them is neither the least interesting nor the least important portion of his book. Caroline was "an unorthodox Protestant." Her theological inquiries "carried her into the shadowy regions of universalism and the refined Arianism of her favourite chaplain Dr. [Samuel Clarke." In an infallible Bible she had, we are told, no more faith than in an infallible Pope, and her views, had they been known, would have been regarded with horror by the Protestant Dis- senters whom she patronized. Ecclesiastical patronage was bestowed for purely political reasons. The High Church clergy were Jacobites, the Low Church were Whigs, and Walpole took care that none other than Whigs should obtain advancement. A study of her wooing by George II. and of the conditions attending the marriage is indispensable to a comprehension of her bearing to the king. It is difficult to acquit her of a measure of duplicity and cunning, but her affection for George must have been genuine; and the manner in which she studied his requirements, ministered to his prejudices and jealousies, and protected his amours is in its way unique. Her diplomacy was wonderful. Rarely, indeed, did the monarch the suspiciousness and meanness of whose nature were remarkable per- ceive with how light a hand he was guided ; and when once and again the satirists pointed out to him the truth, Caroline so effaced herself that his mistrust disappeared. In spite of his atrocious behaviour to her, George felt for her something as near affection as he was capable of experiencing, and left directions that on his burial the sides of both coffins should be opened so that their joint bones should mingle. Caroline's consistent support of Walpole is no less remarkable than the other features in her character. At heart as much a German as her husband, her diplomacy succeeded in concealing the fact. There is something pathetic in her struggles to retain her empire over the king, and her silence concerning the rupture she so carefully concealed was probably due to her fear of producing physical disgust and so losing her influence over him. Mr. Wilkins's book deserves to be generally read and studied. We should like to have chapter and verse for a few of the stories, which are doubtless accurate, but have been narrated concerning others. It is difficult to under- stand her dislike to her son Frederick, which was of course shared by her husband. One of the best -known incidents in the relations between Caroline and George occurred on her deathbed. She advised him to marry again when she was dead. At this George burst into sobs and tears, and assured her he would not, saying, with a strange mixture of naivete and brutality, " Non, non ! j'aurai des waitresses." To this the queen could only reply, pathetically and wearily, " Mon Dieu ! cela n'empOche pas." A great attraction in the book consists of the portraits, which are numerous and admirable. We could have done with an ampler index.

A Genealogical Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage, the Privy Council, Knightage, and Companionage. By Sir Bernard Burke, C.B. Edited by Ash worth P. Burke. (Harrison & Sons.)

A NEW edition of 'Burke' the best, the most authoritative, the most widely recognized, and the longest established of the guides to British titles, rank, and precedency leads off the new year's list of peerages. Always welcome and indispensable, it is this year more welcome and indispensable than ever, since it chronicles a change of monarch and the re-establishment of some of the oldest and most exalted of honours. The accession to the throne of His Majesty Edward VII. is, of course, the matter of primary importance in its pages, but the creation of the Queen the Lady of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the augmenta- tion of the royal title, and the creation of the Duke of Cornwall, York, and Rothesay, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, are conspicuous events in royal annals. Large accessions to titles of honour have come as a natural result of the war. It will strike some readers with amazement to learn that close upon two thousand distinctions have been awarded in the course of the year. In order to supply a chronicle of all these this bulkiest of volumes has had to be further enlarged, and the 1976 pages of last year's peerage have in the present, or sixty- fourth edition, expanded into 2058. Mr. Ashworth Burke, to whom the preparation and accom- plishment of this huge labour are due, owns his indebtedness to his brother, Mr. H. Fariiham Burke, Somerset Herald, to the three Kings of Arms, Garter, Lyon, and Ulster, and to other heraldic authorities. The information supplied is naturally up to date, and its value to all engaged in genealogical pursuits needs no fresh testimony. So comfortable are we in the possession of a work of so much authority and value that we forget to condole with other countries less happily situated. If any country possesses a work supplying like information in a shape equally serviceable and attractive we are unaware of the fact. The con- ditions attending the transmission of title in the chief European countries render it little probable that another such book can be found. Among the familiar features to the student are the essays on ' The Royal Lineage' and the ' Tables of Precedency,' which supply full information not elsewhere given. Almost .the only suggestion we can make is that the time is approaching when the work should be issued in two volumes. It is easy to see the difficulties in the way of such a division, but the task of lifting this peerage from a shelf on to a table involves some labour, and every possessor and lover of books of reference does not possess space enough to enable him to keep them on tables or anywhere but on shelves.

AN article in the Fortnightly by Mr. Arthur Symons on Wordsworth is wholly commendable. It is, indeed, a specimen of a kind of paper far too uncommon in our leading monthlies. We cannot sum up Mr. Sympns's argument. Wordsworth's limitations and his powers are justly appraised. Wordsworth had, it is declared, "a quality of mind which was akin to the child's fresh and wondering apprehension of things. But he was not content with using the faculty like a man ; it dragged him into the depths of a second childhood, hardly to be distinguished from literal imbecility." And again :