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. ix. APRIL ID, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


309


cigarettes, now the masses largely smoke them. Tne other day I was in the shop of a tobacconist in Hull, and noticed a carter from the Yorkshire Wolds purchase a penny- worth of cigarettes. After the customer had left, I expressed my surprise that a working man should not buy tobacco instead of cigarettes, and was told by the shopkeeper that working people were his chief customers for cigarettes. WILLIAM ANDREWS.

Royal Institution, Hull.

[Cigarette-smoking, long familiar in Turkey and Russia, came in, we fancy, after the Crimean war. which led to its adoption by English officers, naval and military. Laurence Oliphant is said to have been the first notable person to smoke cigarettes in the streets of London. J

ST. PATRICK. In ' St. Patrick's Hymn before Tara,' otherwise the * Breastplate of Patrick,' one finds : So have I invoked all these powers Between myself and every dangerous merciless

power

Opposed unto my body and my soul Against the incantations of false prophets, The black laws of heathendom, The false laws of heresy, the craft of idolatry, The spells of women, and smiths, and druids, And all knowledge that hath defiled the soul of

man.

I should be glad of information as to " the spells of women, and smiths, and druids." JAS. CURTIS, F.S.A.

AUTHOR OF BOOK WANTED. " Classic Callings and Fugitive Gatherings. By an Experienced Editor. London, M. Arnold, 1831." JOHN TUDOR.

1, Liverpool Lawn, Dover.

SANTIAGO PENITENTS. In his 'Narrative,' London, 1768, the Hon. John Byron (the admiral who was well known as "Foul- weather Jack ") describes the customs of the inhabitants of St. Jago de Chili as he saw them in 1743. Ladies attended the common diversion of " bull-feasts," &c., and he adds :

" Another amusement for the ladies here, are the nights of their great processions, when they go out veiled I have seen fifty or sixty penitents follow- ing these processions ; they wear a long white gar- ment with a long train to it, and high caps of the same, which fall down before, and cover all their faces, having only two small holes for their eyes ; so that they are never known. Their backs are bare, and they lash themselves with a cat-o'-nine- tails till the long train behind is covered all over with blood. Others follow them with great heavy crosses upon their backs ; so that they groan under the weight as they walk barefooted, ana often faint away. The streets swarm with friars of all the different orders."

I have quoted from the first edition, p. 231. Of subsequent editions the best is the Edin-


burgh one of 1812, where the passage is to be found at p. 174. Where can I find a full account of these self -flogging Santiago peni- tents ? W. S.

STANDSFIELD. John Standsfield, of The Cliffe, Lewes, married first Elinor, daughter of Thomas Comber, of Allington, Sussex (by whom he had a daughter Elinor, wife of Richard Evelyn, of Wooton) ; she was buried at All Saints', Lewes, 6 October, 1613. He

married secondly Jane , who survived

him, and subsequently married William New- ton, Esq., of Southover. Can any of your readers give me the maiden name of the latter lady, and the date and place of her marriage to John Standsfield 1

JOHN COMBER.

Myddleton Hall, near Warrington.

WHITE GLOVES AT ASSIZES. Can any of your correspondents kindly inform me of the origin of tne custom of presenting white gloves at assizes when there are no prisoners to be tried ? CHARLES R. DA WES.

[Consult 1 st S. i. 72 and General Indexes passim.]

OFFICIAL LEADERS OF THE OPPOSITION. Can any of your readers inform me where I can get a list of the official leaders of the Opposition in the Houses of Lords and Com- mons for the last two centuries ?

B. M. NOLAN.


MICHAEL BRUCE AND BURNS.

(9 th S. vii. 466 ; viii. 70, 148, 312, 388, 527 ; ix. 95, 209.)

So far as I am concerned, this discussion refers simply to the authorship of the * Ode to the Cuckoo.' I must therefore decline to be drawn into the consideration of side issues, such as the historical accuracy of Mr. Grey Graham, the alleged dishonesty of Logan as a preacher and lecturer, and even the evidence for the composition of those hymns and paraphrases which Michael Bruce's father is said to have called his son's l Gospel Sonnets.' I might and, if necessity arose, I believe I could defend the position I have taken up even with reference to the whole controversy over the relations of Logan to Bruce, but for the present I am concerned ex- clusively with the dispute regarding the 4 Ode to the Cuckoo.' This was the question that was raised by an incidental remark of the late MR. A. G. REID, whose fatal illness prevented his making a defence for himself. As his unworthy substitute I have striven to uphold