Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 23.djvu/386

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by the speed; a power-meter must, therefore, solve this problem—it must subtract the tightness of one side from the tightness of the other side, multiply the difference by the speed at every instant, and add all the products together, continuously representing the growing amount on a dial. I shall now show for the first time an instrument that IPSM V23 D386 Concept of measuring electric flow.jpgFig. 6.have devised, that will do all this in the simplest possible manner. I have here two wheels connected by a driving-band of India-rubber, round which I have tied every few inches a piece of white silk ribbon. I shall turn one a little way, and hold the other. The driving-force is indicated by a difference of stretching: the pieces of silk are much farther apart on the tight side than they are on the loose. I shall now turn the handle, and cause the wheels to revolve; the motion of the band is visible to all. The India-rubber is traveling faster on the tight side than on the loose side, nearly twice as fast; this must be so, for, as there is less material on the tight side than on the loose, there would be a gradual accumulation of the India-rubber round the driven pulley, if they traveled at the same speed; since there is no accumulation, the tight side must travel the fastest. Now, it may be shown mathematically that the difference in the speeds is proportional both to the actual speed and to the driving strain; it is therefore a measure of the power or work being transmitted, and the difference in the distance traveled is a measure of the work done. I have here a working machine which shows directly on a dial the amount of work done; this I will show in action directly. Instead of India-rubber, elastic steel is used. Since the driving-pulley has the velocity of the tight side, and the driven of the loose side of the belt, the difference in the number of their turns, if they are of equal size, will measure the work. This difference I measure by differential gearing which actuates a hand on a dial. I may turn the handle as fast as I please; the index does not move, for no work is being done. I may hold the wheel and produce a great driving-strain; again the index remains at rest, for no work is being done. I now turn the handle quickly, and lightly touch the driven wheel with my finger. The resistance, small though it is, has to be overcome; a minute amount of work is being done, the index creeps around gently. I will now put more pressure on my finger, more work is being done, the index is moving faster; whether I increase the speed or the resistance, the index turns faster; its rate of motion measures the power, and the distance it has moved, or the number of turns, measures the work done. That this is so I will show by an experiment. I will wind up in front of a scale a seven-pound weight; the hand has turned one third around; I will now wind a twenty-eight pound weight up the same height; the hand has turned four thirds of