The absence of the chin prominence is also shown in these views. As will be noticed, the line A C, let fall from the anterior superior angle of the symphyses, falls entirely outside of the rest of the anterior outline in the chimpanzee. Spy No. 1, and Spy No. 2, while in modern man it cuts the outline, leaving a considerable prominence anterior to it.
The molar teeth increase in size posteriorly. Prof. Cope, from an examination of the teeth from casts furnished him by M. Lohest, points out many interesting peculiarities in dentition, prominent among which is the fact that the superior molar teeth are quadrituberculate. In Europeans they are generally trituberculate. In some lower races—Malays, Polynesians, and Melanesians—they are quadrituberculate, as they are also in the anthropoid apes. The bones of the forearm, radius, and ulna are so curved as to produce a wide interosseous space, not observed in any existing race, but common in apes.
The thigh bone, or femur, is round in section and curved anteriorly. This is only known among existing races in the Negritos of the Philippine Islands. It is normal among apes.
The tibia has an oval section, and is shorter in relation to the femur than in any existing race. This is also a simian character.
The condyles of the femur are wide, and are more produced posteriorly than in any existing race.
The articulation between the femur and tibia is such that the men of Spy must have walked with a fixed bend at the knees. Moreover, the body must have been bent forward in order to preserve equilibrium. These men were of short, powerful build.
In general the man of Spy presents many simian characters, but he is still distinctively a man. To use the words of MM. Fraipont and Lohest, between him and the highest apes there is "an abyss"; to which Prof. Cope adds, "though, from a zoölogical point of view, it is not a wide one."
On the other hand, this man of Spy presents characters that seem to distinctly define and separate him specifically from all other known races of men. In recognition of this fact, the name Homo neanderthalensis has been proposed for him.
MM. Quatrefages and Hami regard the Cannstadt man and the Neanderthal man as being of the same age and type, and have classified with them the crania found at La Denise, Eguisheim, and in the lowest gravels of the plain of Grenelle, under the name of the Cannstadt race. As before stated, MM. Fraipont and Lohest consider the Spy man to be of the same age and type, referring it also to the Cannstadt race. Of this race Quatrefages says: "It disputed the ground with the great extinct mammals, with the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, the cave bear, and the cave hyena; it belongs, therefore, to the earliest ages of the Qua-