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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 44.djvu/646

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superimposed one upon the other, the Cannstadt race occupying the lowest gravels, the Cro-Magnon race the alluvial beds at a depth of ten to thirteen feet, and the Furfooz race at a depth of five to eight feet.

The Cro-Magnon skull is similar to the Cannstadt in one particular only—they are both dolichocephalic, long-headed—the cephalic index of that of the old man of Cro-Magnon being 73·76, that of the Engis skull from the Meuse, Belgium, being 70·52; so that we have in both races long, narrow skulls, but here the resemblance ceases. The forehead of the Cro-Magnon skull is well proportioned, rising above brow ridges (superciliary ridges), but slightly marked in some instances, better defined in others, but never excessively prominent and apelike as in the Cannstadt skull. The vault presents fine proportions, tne calculated capacity being 96·99 cubic inches (1,590 cubic centimetres). This is higher than the mean capacity of existing European skulls.

The facial bones indicate the type of heads called by Pruner Bey disharmonic—that is, a head with a skull elongated from before backward and a face elongated from above downward is harmonic. When there is a disagreement in these proportions it is disharmonic. In this case the face is broad while the head is long. The eyes were small, the nose bold and narrow. The maxillary bones projected outward, so as to produce decided prognathism; the chin projects forward; in stature they were tall, measuring from five feet ten to six feet eight inches. All the bones of the skeleton are solid, thick, and indicate a powerful people.

In the valley of the Vézère within a distance of seven or eight miles there have been found eight settlements of this race. I will not detain you to enumerate these or describe them separately. Suffice it to say that, while the remains are all undoubtedly of the same race, the associated animal and archæological remains indicate clearly that they are not of the same age, but rather those of successive periods of development; thus the eight settlements give, as it were, an epitomized history of the race.

The most ancient, being connected by its fauna with the lower alluvium of Grenelle, the men of this period were probably little superior to the Cannstadt race. In the next settlement, that of Cro-Magnon itself, the arms and implements were more numerous and varied, though lighter and made of flint; the large animals—mammoth, bear, and hyena—were still killed for food. In other more recent settlements the cutting of flints was developed to a marvelous perfection; arrowheads, spear and lance points were made with much care and finish.

In the most recent settlements when the reindeer predominated the industry underwent a change. Bones and the antlers of reindeer were fashioned into weapons, while flint appears to have