in the case of the beleaguered village, is applicable to all conditions where ramparts are used. Suppose the command whose fortunes we have followed had been attacked while on the march at the point 'A' on Map 1. The opposing force was manifestly too strong for resistance in the field; they retreat to the rocky eminence 'K' and there proceed to fortify the position. A glance at Diagram 4 will show what they will try at least to accomplish. In military language that shaded portion of the work to be constructed is called a bastion; it consists of two faces ('AX' and 'AY'), and the two flanks ('JY' and 'HX'). The faces of this bastion are defended (as the arrow heads indicate) by the flanks of adjacent bastions; that is, the face 'AY' is swept by a raking fire from
'ZE', and the face 'AX' from 'FG'. Reciprocally, 'HX' rakes the face 'BG', and 'JY' the face 'ED', and so on round the intrenchment.
All that has been said as to protecting the ammunition and stores will apply to this work as it did to the village. If a spring of water can be included, as at '0', this will be found of incalculable advantage. Of all forms of defensive ramparts the straight line is the worst; if time does not permit a work with bastions, however irregular, an enclosure shaped somewhat like a star is serviceable (shown in Diagram 6, Figs. 'A', 'B' and 'C'). Should an enclosed work be impracticable, the line should have its ends (or 'flanks') strongly guarded, and be broken up, as in Diagram 5 'D' into short straight lines nearly at right angles, to serve for mutual support. This principle of mutual support, however achieved, is called that of 'defensive relations', and is capable of adapta-