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are valuable additions to every valuable article. But an introductory summary has still another value: it enables a reader quickly to determine whether he ought to read the rest of the essay or not, and this, in an era of over-abundant publication, is a service that will secure to the author the gratitude of many strangers to the rest of his work. Still another aid to the reader is afforded by a brief statement of the plan of treatment, may well follow the introductory summary of results; the reader can then, if he wishes, give attention only to some particular part of the essay which interests him, and pass over the rest.

Page headings and sectional headings deserve careful preparation because of their great value to the reader. Page headings are, however, often determined more by the editor of a journal or publisher of a book than by the author. But if authors more frequently protested against the undesirable form of page headings often in use, improvement in this respect might be sooner attained. It is surely of no practical value to a reader, who consults, for example, a volume of the "National Journal of Physiography," to find that name repeated at the head of every left-hand page. The name of a journal is sufficiently given on the title page and on the cover of the volume. Likewise it is not particularly helpful to read in every left-page heading of a long essay, "J. Smith," and in every right-page heading, "The Geography of Uruguay." In such an essay, the left heading should give the author's name and a short catch-title, as "Smith: Uruguay"; and the right heading should state the chief topics of the two pages that lie open with it, as "Coast and Harbors." It is always the convenience of the reader, not the preference of an editor, or the fashion of a printer, or the habit of a librarian that should determine matters of this sort. Old-fashioned habit is, however, sometimes so powerful that the reader's convenience is less thought of than consistency with a scheme of page headings adopted many years ago.

Sectional headings are usually within the control of the author. Let him then see that this authority is used for the benefit of his readers. There should be at least one sectional heading for every two or three pages; indeed a more frequent use of sectional headings is ordinarily possible and convenient. If all such headings and their page numbers are gathered in a table of contents at the beginning of a long essay, 80 much the better for the reader.

Good technical style is frequently neglected in making references to other authors. The titles of cited books and articles are best placed all together at the end of an article, or at the end of the chapters of a book; they should always be scrupulously accurate and complete. Citations in foot-notes, and especially such abbreviated forms as "loc. cit.," "op. cit," "ut supra," should be avoided: indeed, foot-notes of all sorts are distracting to the reader. If they relate to the matter of the text, they can usually, by a slight change in phraseology or in arrangement.