Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 78.djvu/249

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be given a better place in the body of the page. Reference to a cited author is conveniently made by small numbers inserted in the text, not in parenthesis. The citations at the end of each chapter then include, opposite the proper reference number, the author's name and initials, the full title of his book or article, and the place and date of publication if a separate book is cited; or the abbreviated title of a periodical, followed by the volume, year and first and last pages. Another approved method of citation places (he year of publication and the cited page in parentheses in the text after an author's name, as "Smith ('08, 372)"—or the author's name may also be in the parenthesis, if it is not desired in the text. Then at the end of the essay or chapter, all authors are listed in alphabetical order. The advantage of this method is, that if repeated references are made to an article by the same author, the proper page for each reference is indicated in the text; and the citation is given but once, and then completely and correctly, in the alphabetical list. Reference to an author without complete citation is awkward and unsatisfying. While considering matters of technique, protest must be entered against the utterly reprehensible method of repaging reprints. The original paging should always be retained; the pages should not even be reset, in case an article begins on a left-hand page or in the lower part of a page. Reprints should furthermore always give full statement of the periodical from which they are taken, and of the volume and year of original publication. Neglect of these rules is too frequently the cause either of incorrect citations, or of a large amount of unnecessary trouble when an author has to go to the original volume in a library instead of making reference from a reprint on his own shelves.

More important, however, than these subordinate matters of technique, is the proper illustration of an article. Maps, diagrams and pictures should be used more frequently in geographical articles than is now commonly the case, particularly as in these modern days a process-cut from a pen drawing is about as cheap as the same space of text The excuse offered by an author for the absence of appropriate drawings is too often that he cannot draw. This may suffice for authors whose education was gained at an earlier time, when geographical instruction was less developed than it is now; but for the future, such an excuse must be taken as indicating poor training. On the other hand, reproductions of poor or uninstructive photographs are becoming nowadays rather too common. A good photograph of a characteristic scene from a well-selected point of view, is admirable, but the space given to a poor photograph can often be occupied to advantage by a generalized diagram. Narrative reports should be accompanied by an easily legible route-map, and by views—either photographs or sketches—of the more significant features encountered on the narrated journey. Inductive essays should be illustrated by appropriate figures of the most significant features upon which its generalizations are based; and also by