��Popular Science Monthly
��and a pair of oak jaws bolted or screwed to it, to keep this spar close to the mast. These jaws may be purchased with the other fittings, or sawed out of ij^-in. oak. For making the sails, heavy unbleached cotton duck 8 oz. in weight is the most satisfactory. The breadths of cloth are first sewed together by lapping one edge over the other for about ^4 in. with each edge stitched close. The narrow-lapped or bighted effect may be gained by folding over a hem and double-stitching the same
���The small fittings required to connect the parts of the ice-yacht described
way as the regular seam. The laps must, of course, run parallel with the leach or after side of the sail, as shown in the sail plan. To make the sail strong and ser- \iceable, it is the usual practice of sail- makers to sew 14^-in. rope (tarred bolt-rope is the best) all around the sail. For hand sewing on canvas, a diamond-pointed sail needle and a sailor's palm will be required to force the needle through the rope and cloth. The stitch used is simple overcast- ing. The seams of the sail itself may be stitched on the sewing-machine, but the hand-sewn sail is the strongest. At each corner of the sail, sew on a semicircular path to reinforce the sail at these points.
The sail is attached to the mast-hoops and gaff and boom through grommets. An easy way to make these grommet-holes is to procure about 3 doz., '^i-in. gaU'anized iron grommet-rings. Punch a small hole in the sail where the grommet-hole is wanted, [ilace a ring on each side of the hole and sew the ring to the sail by means of an overcasting stitch, using waxed sail twine and a sail needle. The reef-points may be simply sewed to the sail, but the sailor's wa\' of doing this, is to sew in J'2-in. grommet-rings to reinforce the sail. The reef-points are 6-in. lengths of cotton roi)e.
��About l^-in. twine may be used. The sails should be cut at least 6 in. shorter than the spars so that plenty of room is left for lashing them after the sails have stretched, which they are certain to do.
The mast is stepped by squaring the foot or heel as shown. To prevent the end of the spar from splitting or check- ing, drive on an iron band or ferrule. To do away with wear of the mortise, cut in the backbone to receive the mast. It is a good plan to face the hole with a piece of sheet brass.
The mast-head is rigged as shown, 3)^ ft. from the top. A single-e>ed band with eye to the rear or on the after side of mast, is wedged on the mast - head. The 4-e>ed band is wedged on the mast 6 in. from the top as shown. In the forward eye of the top band, lash the end of the J^-in. wire rope used for the jib-stay. In the after eye, hook the 3-in. pulley-block, to be used for the peak-halyards. In the two side eyes, lash the ends of the }4-in. wire rope used for the mainsta\s. In the single-eyed band, hook the 3-in. pulley- block for the throat-halyards, and in the eye in the top band, underneath the jib- stay, hook the 3-in. block for the jib- halyards.
Each end of the stay is lashed to the eye of a turnhuckle, the jib-stay being carried down to the top eye in the band on fore end of backbone, and the two side guys, or mast stays, carried down to the eyebolt in the runner-plank on each side of the mast. Before stepping the mast, slip on the six mast-hoops, and the eight jib-rings, and reeve the halyards through the blocks on the mast-head.
The rigging may now be set up taut by screwing up the turnbuckles. The gaff is kejit close to the mast by its jaws. To prevent any jjossibility of the jaws becoming unshipped — which is a common occurrence — it is customary to bore a hole through r.xch end of the jaws and run a wire through. That the jaws ma>' slide up the mast easih' without binding or jamming, string a few round hardwood l)eads on the wire after the jaws are in position around the mast. These loops are known as parrels, and the beads are made of liginini-\itae. The i-in. size is suitable for the purpose, and six beails will suHice.
The boom is fastened to the mast by means of a fitting called a gooseneck. These fittings are of wirions models, a good