Popular Science Monthly
��one being shown at F. The mainsail is secured to the mast-hoops tliroiigli the grommct-rings, by seizing them together with a few turns of marUn (which is strong rope-yarn) or any strong twine. The boom and gaff are laced to the spars with 3'8-in- cotton cord, running the cord through the grommet-holes and around the spars. The jib is attached to its stay by seizing through the grommet- rings to the jib-rings and to the jib-boom by lacing with cord.
A good way to attach the jib-boom to the stay is to screw an eyebolt in the end of the jib-boom and connect this with the eye in turnbuckle with a heavy split ring. This will hold the foot of jib in place, and allow the jib-boom to move freely. The halyards should of course be lead aft to the cockpit where the skipper can reach them without leaving the cockpit. The best way to do this is to screw a double or two single pulley-blocks on the runner-plank 12 in. from the mast, for the peak and throat- halyards of the mainsail, and a single block of the same size on the opposite side of the runner-plank, for the jib-halyards. The halyards may now be led aft and belayed to a cleat, screwed on each side of the backbone in the forward end of the cockpit.
The rope for pulling in and letting out the mainsail — known as the mainsheet — is best rigged up as shown. An iron rod, known as a traveler, is screwed on the after deck back of the rudder-post, and a pulley-block is lashed to the ring on the traveler. The rope is fastened to the end of the boom, and is led through the block on the traveler, up to two blocks lashed to the boom and down to a block screwed to the top of backbone, which affords a splendid leverage, without putting the blocks in the way of the steersman's head when he is going about.
The rope for controlling the jib — called the jib-sheet — is lashed to the end of jib-boom, thence led to a pulley lashed to the guy-wire, and aft to the cockpit.
All the fittings required are illustrated in the drawing and ma>- be purchased from dealers in marine hardware or yacht sup- plies. The galvanized iron fittings are to be preferred to the common black iron, owing to their non-rusting qualities. The U-strap bolts, the V-shaped spreader, the rudder fittings, and the shoes for the runners, can be made by any blacksmith, and will not prove expensive.
��As a well-built boat of this type will last for many jears of hard sailing, the craft should be painted, for the sakeof appearance as well as to preserve the woodwork. Red or black paint gives a better effect than other colors, but this detail is one of per- sonal choice. An attractive way to paint the boat is to finish the front of the back- bone up to the runner-plank in spar- varnish and the rest of the boat aft in paint. The runner-plank may be painted out to the guy-wire eyebolts, and the heads of the plank and the runners finished in varnish. The rudder-runner may be var- nished also. The cockpit is painted, but the oak combing will prove attractive if finished "bright" — that is, in varnish. The mast and spars should be well sandpapered and finished in two or three coats of spar- varnish. Bolt-heads and other fittings may be touched up with ahmiinum or bronze.
��Preventing Exposed Water-Pipes from Freezing
EXPOSED water-pipes are apt to freeze in winter, causing much anno^'ance, which may be prevented by covering them with the following mixture: To a solution of thin boiled starch add sawdust until the mixture forms a thick paste. A fine sieve may be used to clear this sawdust from lumps.
Heavy cord is first wrapped around the pipe, spacing the turns about J^ in. A Jci-in. layer of the mixture is smeared on and allowed to dry; then a second layer is put on and smoothed up. The string acts as an anchor to make the coating adhere to the pipe closely. Whitewash or paint may be used to give a finish for inside pipes; but for outside work cover the coating with hot tar. If it is desired to have a very neat covering, wrap the saw- dust coating with cloth or canvas, apply- ing it in narrow strips like a bandage, and painting the outside surface. An even coating of the sawdust is necessary when covering with cloth. — Thos. W. Benso.v.
��How to Handle Sulphuric Acid with Safety
DANGER is often encountered in emp- tying sulphuric acid from a carton into a small bottle. Procure a rubber stop- per that will fit the neck of the carton. Make a hole in the stopper to receive a piece of rubber tubing. Pour the acid through this. — J. H. C.\ssiDY.