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Warre and Vavasour^ 1845-6. 81 The snow covered the whole country to the depth of several feet, at the season we crossed the Rocky Mountains, and pro- visions were carried on men's shoulders the greater part of the before mentioned distance of no miles, but later in the year the Hudson's Bay Company are annually in the habit of for- warding furs, stores, etc., on horseback through the same pass, and without any serious impediment, except those arising from the denseness of the forests on either side, the occasional swamps, which could be made practicable by "fascenes," and the necessity of constantly fording the headwaters of the Canoe and Athabasca Rivers. We beg to forward herewith a more detailed census of the Indian population, from which our condensed report (for- warded in Nov. last) was taken. The Indians of the Northwest Coast appear to be unusually numerous, but we have been repeatedly assured that their numbers are not exaggerated. Around the different posts, vis- ited by us, our own observations led us to believe that the ac- companying lists are accurate. We have endeavored, when it was not possible to obtain the exact statement of their num- bers, to make our estimate rather under the actual numerical strength. We beg also to forward a condensed report of the different establishments of the Hudson's Bay Company, visited by us during our journey to and during our residence in the Oregon Territory, showing their capabilities of defense, sit- uation, description of buildings, etc. In conclusion, we must beg to be allowed to observe, with an unbiased opinion, that whatever may have been the orders, or the motives of the gentlemen in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts on the west of the Rocky Mountains their policy has tended to the introduction of the American settlers into the country. We are convinced that without their assistance not 30 Amer- ican families would now have been in the settlement. The first immigrations, in 1841 or 1842, arrived in so miser-

able a condition that had it not been for the trading posts of----