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great, who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman, which is greater than great, as the prânas (senses).


EIGHTH Khanda


1. Next for the sevenfold Sâman. Let a man meditate on the sevenfold Sâman in speech. Whenever there is in speech the syllable hun[1] that is hinkâra, pra is the prastâva, â is the âdi, the first, i. e. Om,

2. Ud is the udgîtha, pra the pratihâra, upa the upadrava, ni the nidhana.

3. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech itself, to him who knowing this meditates on the sevenfold Sâman in speech. He becomes rich in food, and able to eat food.


NINTH Khanda


1. Let a man meditate on the sevenfold Sâman as the sun. The sun is Sâman, because he is always the same (sama); he is Sâman because he is the same, everybody thinking he looks towards me, he looks towards me[2].

2. Let him know that all beings are dependent on him (the sun). What he is before his rising, that is the hinkâra. On it animals are dependent. Therefore animals say hin (before sunrise), for they share the hinkâra of that Sâman (the sun).

3. What he is when first risen, that is the prastâva. On it men are dependent. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and celebrity, for they share the prastâva of that Sâman.


  1. These are again the stobhâksharas, or musical syllables used in the performance of the Sâman hymns; see p. 22.
  2. Cf. Kh. Up. II, 2, 2. Comm.