640 GERMAN EMPIRE: — HESSE
There were 516,516 males and 522,504 females in 1895 — i.e. 101*1 females per 100 males. Increase from 1885 to 1890 was at the rate of 076 per cent. ; from 1890 to 1895 at the rate of 0'97 per cent, per annum. There were 9,188 marriages in Hesse in 1897, 21,227 births and 35,429 deaths, leaving a surplus of 14,202 births. Among the births 1,281, or 3'62 per cent, were stillborn, and 2,816, or 7 "95 per cent., illegitimate children. Emigrants to extra-European countries, 1,992 in 1891, 1,716 in 1892, 1,422 in 1893, 515 in 1894, 693 in 1895, 558 in 1896, and 468 in 1897.
Of the population in 1895, 47 '9 per cent, lived in communes with 2,000 inhabitants and upwards ; 52 '1 per cent, in smaller communes.
The largest towns of the Grand-duchy are Mayence or Mainz, with 76,946 ; Darmstadt, the capital, 63,745 (including Bessungen) ; Offenbach, 39,408 ; Worms, 28,636 Giessen, 22,924 inhabitants, at the census of December 2, 1895.
Religion and Instruction.
Somewhat more than two-thirds of the population are Protestant ; nearly three-tenths Catholic. At the census of 1895 there were 694,962 Protestants, 305,906 Catholics, 6,619 of other Christian sects, 24,618 Jews, and 42 unclassified, or of no religion. The Grand-duke is Protestant and head of the Evangelical or Protestant Church, which is governed by a synod (with 56 members), and Avhose affairs are administered by a consistory (Ober- consistorium). The Roman Catholic Church has a Bishop (at Mainz). The Protestant Church has 416 parishes, the Roman Catholic Church 159 ; the former are divided among 23 deaneries, the latter among 19. The con- tributions of the State to the Protestant Church amounted in 1898 to 240,000 marks; to the Roman Catholic Church, 137,892 marks. The Jews have 8 rabbinates.
Instruction is compulsory in Hesse. The elementary schools are main- tained by the communes, but with contributions by the State. There are (1898) 987 public elementary schools with 2,559 teachers, attended by 158,053 pupils ; 34 advanced elementary schools (erweiterte Volksschulen), of which 26 are higher schools (hohere Biirgarschulen) with 90 teachers and 1,474 pupils, and 8 other middle schools with 93 teachers and 2,996 pupils. The children who leave the elementary schools proceed to the continuation schools (Fortbiklungs-scliulen). In 1897-98 the nuni])er of these schools was 906 ; of the pupils, 24,098. Hesse has 28 Gymnasia, Realgymnasia, Progymnasia, Oberrealschulen, and Realschulen, with (1897) a total attendance of 8,358 ; 5 higher girls' schools with (1898) 2,010, and 52 private schools with (1898) 4,110 pupils. In addition, there are a University at Giessen with 733 matriculated students and 31 listeners, and a Technical High School (Technische Hochschule) at Darmstadt, with 1,237 students and 84 " hospitants," &c., in 1898. Besides, there are many industrial, technical, agi'icultural and other special institutes.
The budget is granted for the term of three years. The sources of ordinary revenue and branches of expenditure were estimated for each year of the financial period 1897-1900 as follows : —