PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY
Direct taxes .... Indirect taxes Domains and forests
Share in Customs of the
German Emi)ire . Miscellaneous receipts .
Public debt (interest and
Civil list and appanages
Ministry of State .
,, ,, Interior
,, ,, Justice
,, ,, Finance
Contribution to German Empire
Adjustment of salaries .
Various expenses . Total expenditure ,
The extraordinary revenue was estimated at 4,021,388, and the extra- ordinary expenditure at 3,224,900 marks per annum.
The direct taxes are a land (and house-) tax, trade-tax, rent-tax and income-tax ; the indirect taxes are chiefly a stamp-tax and fees, dog-tax, duties on successions, &c.
The public debt amounted to 238,769,000 marks in 1898, of which 210,584,000 marks are railway debt; against this are active funds of the State amounting to 10,734,000 marks. The total annual charge of the debt (interest and sinking fund ) in the budget of 1897-1900 is 7,933,782 marks in ordinaiy and 19,194 marks in extraordinary.
Production and Industry.
Of the area, 641 per cent, is under cultivation ; 31*2 per cent, forests ; 4*7 percent, uncultivated (houses, roads, water, &c ). Arable land occupies 381,143 hectares; meadows and pastures, 100,528; vineyards, 10,825 ; and forests, 240,700 hectares ; of the latter, 68,738 belong to the State, 89,932 to the communes, 1,713 to other bodies, and 80,317 to private persons.
The number of agricultural enclosures, each under one household, was (1895) 133,840, with a population of 366,619, of whom 165,880 were actively engaged on the farms. Of these farms 59,043 were less than 1 hectare each ; 65,419 ranged from 1 to less than 10 hectares, and 9,255 from 10 to less than 100 hectares, while there were 123 having a surface of 100 hectares and upwards. Their total area was 570,616 hectares. The chief crops are wheat and spelt (34,629 hectares in 1897), rye (69,967), barley (58,230), oats (48,218), beetroot and turnips (31,714), and potatoes (68,607). In the same year 142,700 hectares were under hay crops.
The number of domestic animals in Hesse on December 1, 1897, was : — Horses, 56,002 ; cattle, 324,626 ; sheep, 86,731 ; swine, 271,595 ; goats <1892), 115,158.
Minerals to the value of 1,942,319 marks, and salt of 787,849 marks were raised in 1896. The principal manufactures are leather, cloth, paper, chemicals, furniture, wagons, railway cars and carriages, machinery, musical instruments, tobacco and cigars, sparkling-wine.
Hesse has 665 miles of railway, all, except 50 miles, the property of the States of Hesse, Pnissia and Baden.
British Chargi d' A ffaire.9. — G. W. Buchanan.
Consul-General. — Sir Charles 0]ipenheimer (Frankfort).
References concerning Hesse.
Hof-und-Staats-Handbuch dos Grossh. Ilessen. 1S96. nannstadt. Beitragc zur Sta- tistik des Grossh. Hessen. 42 Bde. Darmstadt, 1862-98, Mittheilungen der Gros.sli.