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porary or perpetual banishment to a particular place or district, but without affecting the rank or fortune of the individual as a Roman citizen. Of this species of banishment, history records two famous instances, both of which occurred during the reign of Augustus. The one was that of the poet Ovid, who, for some personal offence he had given the emperor, of the nature of which we are not sufficiently informed by the historians of the age, was relegated, or banished for life, to a small town on the Euxine or Black Sea. The other was that of Archelaus, the son of Herod the Great, and king of Judea, shortly after the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ: for certain complaints having been preferred against that monarch by his own subjects, he was deprived of his regal dignity and government by order of the emperor, under whose protection Judea then was, and relegated, or banished for life, to a city in Gaul or France.[1]

For infamous crimes, such as are now designated felony, the emperor Augustus instituted a second description of banishment, designated deportatio, or transportation; implying banishment for life, either with or without hard labour, to a certain place or district. It was doubtless to this species

  1. By this event, kingly government was entirely abolished in Judea, which became thenceforth a Roman province. The sceptre then departed from Judah.