out!) The Pope and the cardinals alone remain, for only crowned heads and princes of royal blood (who alone have the same rank) are permitted to attend the Secret Consistory. The Pope prefaces his remarks by reminding all of their pledge to secrecy. But this "allo- cution" is nevertheless usually intended for the press and may discuss a question of timely interest in a significant and thorough manner or may even contain solemn declarations by the Pope on important mat- ters of Church policy. Thereupon the Pope proclaims the names of those whom he has decided to raise to the honour of the Purple. The question is then asked: "Quid vobis videtur?" (What is your opin- ion?) The Cardinals rise silently, take off their little red caps, and bow in token of their assent. "By the will of God, the Almighty, of the Apostles Peter and Paul and ourselves we name these cardinals . . ." Sometimes there is an addition: "Another (or two, three etc.,) we keep in our breast (in pectore) and will make manifest as soon as we see fit." These cardinals "in petto" are not yet named there- with, the Pope merely creating for himself not for his successors the obligation to change a reservation in pectore into an appointment. Nevertheless one thus signalled out is immediately paid the annual income of a cardinal (20,000 lira) which if he remains in petto for one or two years affords him the means wherewith to defray the costs of the unusually high expenses attendant upon elevation to the cardi- nalcy. Political circumstances, too, may require such a reservation; for though the choice of the cardinals is the wholly personal privilege of the Pope (in a jest the question is asked, "What is a Cardinal?" and the answer is given, "The Pope's whim") , no Pope would today really act on an impulse. For every Papal government, the answer to the question whether the Church is to prosper and have peace, and whether political prudence has been served, is contingent upon the choice of the right men. Since the older Catholic countries also have the right to suggest their candidates, a choice must sometimes be the fruit of very tedious and laborious negotiations, though to be sure no real force can be brought to bear upon the Pope's decision.
The appointed cardinal receives word of his election some weeks in advance through a letter from the Cardinal Secretary, and awaits the legates of the Curia either in Rome or in his own city. These are two in number: a member of the Guard of Nobles, who conveys the