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THE CURIA

news of the elevation and brings a little red cap, and a Papal delegate who brings the red beret which in Catholic countries is presented to the King and is then placed by him on the head of the new prince of the Church in solemn audience. Such a privilege was, for example, conferred on the King of Bavaria shortly before the World War. The monarch bestows Orders on the legates and it is the duty of the new cardinal to give them large sums of money. The member of the Guard of Nobles expects 10,000 lira, the delegate 6000 and his secre- tary 3000 the same sums which they have already received from the Curia for these greatly coveted missions. A cardinal's ring of heavy gold, but without a particularly precious stone, can be purchased from the Curial Commission for 3000 lira. The cardinal's robes are splen- did and beautiful. The red soutane with a long train consists of silk moire in summer and of cloth in the winter. In addition he wears a broad sash of red silk with gold tufts, a white linen and lace surplus, a rochet above which there is a red mozzetu a cape also made of moire or cloth which covers his shoulders and comes down almost to his elbows a collar, stockings and buckle shoes all of red, and a handkerchief of red moire trimmed with gold lace. In Rome a Car- dinal covers his rochet, the sign of his jurisdiction, with a mantelletta, which is a round, sleeveless mantle with two armholes. It reaches to the knees and is also made of red moire or cloth. The little cap and the beret are red and of the same materials; a fur hat to be worn out- side the Church has braid and tufts of red gold. At particularly important ceremonies the mozzetta and the mantelletta are replaced by the cAffd magna, a huge red cloak with a train three metres long, a hood, and a little shoulder piece. In summer this garment is made of moire; in winter it is of cloth, and the shoulder piece is of ermine. A red robe worn on formal journeys is braided with gold and has a neck piece of red velvet. The whole of this raiment must be supplied in duplicate, since the colour required for periods of ecclesiastical mourning, i. e., Advent, Lent, and the period intervening between the death of one Pope and the election of another, is violet with an undertone of red. Here also the material is moire in summer, and cloth in winter. On two Sundays during the year, Guadete and L&tafc Sundays, a rose-coloured ceremonial garb is required. The vestments used at pontifical ceremonies must likewise meet certain


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